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%lanh Book Manulaclurers. 

Published Blontlily, at SOS Sr-oad-vray, 4'or »1.00 per Year. 


VOL. 11. NO. 7. 



expeut and penman, 

205 Broadway, Nev York. 





THOMiS MAY PEIflCE, M. A., Principal. 
30 South Ttaih Street, Philadelphia. 

UMlNti COItllflEltCIAL COl.I^EGE, 


NEW TORE, AUODST 7, 1878. 

From a SUnograpldc Heport by J. T. Qraih- 

ger, of New Ym-k. 
Mr. Chaibman and Gbktlemzn : 

I sUall not attempt to present tiiie subject 
to your consideration in any profound man- 
ner. I unfortunately left all my profundity 
at home, and besides the Kubjcct is not ii pro- 
found one, and if I should attempt to treat it 
profoundly, and bring out all the details bear- 
ing upon Business Correspondence, I should 
deserve to have my audience dismissed as 
summarily as was that of an itinerant histri- 
onic who was travelling in the north of Scot- 
land. At one place where he stopped the 
proprietors of the hall told him that for a the- 
atrical performance he could get no audience, 
but, as the people there were oil fond of Sci- 
ence, they would come to hear a lecture upon 
almost any scientific subject. He knew noth- 
ing of science, but his pockets were empty, 
and something had to be done, so be boldly 
announced a lecture upon Chemistry, trust. 
ing to his \Yit to carry him through. When 
the time came he had a very large audience, 
and with a Leyden-jar, a retort and some 
glass tubes he performed a few simple experi- 
ments before them; then taking a quantity of 
brick dust, he threw it into a mortar, and be- 
gan to stir it vigorously, dilating all the while 
upon the dangerous character of the compound 
also stating that he was grievously affected 
with heart disease, and liable to drop dead at 
any moment ; at lft"t he made the startling 
assertion that, should he stop stirring that 
mixture for only one second the whole build- 
ing with its occupauts would be blown into 
atoms. In two minutes ;here was not asingle 
being remaining in the house, except the lec- 
turer and assistant who gatht-ri^d the spoils and 
left ; so I say that if I made this a profound 
subject I should deserve to be left as uncer- 
emoniously as was this pseudo scientific lee. 

During the year 1877, there passed through 

the mails of the United States, nine hundred 
millions of letters, (including postal cards). 
Estimating the letter- writing population of 
the country at thirty millions each person 
wrote one letter every ten days, or, estimating 
only one tenth of such population to be en- 
gaged in business requiring any considerable 
amount of correspondence, and there was ont- 
business 'letter per day written by each per- 
son. There go to the Dead Letter Office on 
account of deficiencies in the addi-ess, or lack 
of postage, fourand a half millions of letters, 
annually. There are twelve millions of the 
youth of this country attending school, pre- 
paring themselves for the discharge of the ac- 
tive duties of life. About one out of every 
four hundred of these attend business col- 
leges. From these figures we get certain 
other facts, First, that a very considerable 
portion of communication between man and 
man, and especially between busiuebis men is 
conducted through the medium of written 
letters. SecoTid, there is in general a lamenta- 
ble deficiency, on the part of the people, in 
regard to letter writing. Third, that the 
utility of schools in preparing the youth of our 
country for the discharge of the active duties 
is unquestioned iu the United Statos. Fourth, 
that business colleges in taking one out of 
every four hundred of these cannot avoid the 
responsibility of drilling most thoroughly and 
compi-ebensiveiy all iheir studeuUi m a 
course of business correspondence, I am 
glad that my 'subject is hmited to bvaijiess cor- 
respondence, for if not, it would be far be- 
yond the scope of a single lecture, in the time 
allotted to me here to-day. Talleyrand once 
said, that the object of speech was to conceal 
thought, and it would seem that this was also 
the object of many persons in writing letters, 
I wonder if any of these Business College Prin- 
cipals ever received a letter running in this 
gtyle, " Sir ; Please take notice, I want your 
catalogue, John Jones, " without any post office 
address or date. I wonder if any of you ever 
.saw a letterrunning in this strain. 

Sir : I sit down and take my pen in hand to 
let you know that I am well, with the excep- 
tion of a bad cold, and " hope you are enjoy, 
ing the same blessing." I have no doubt you 
have, all seen just such letters. 

I conceive to have at least three divisions : 
first, mechanical construction ; second, the 
thought expressed ; third, the manner of ex- 
pressing those thoughts. Let us look for a 
few moments at the mechanical construction 
of a business letter. I am aware that there 
are a great many well authorized forms, but I 
believe that every teacher of this branch 
should be able to give one clear, well defined 
arbitrary form of business letter. Most ://ou7if/ 
men have about as clear an idea of a business 
letter as they have of ozone, and a variety of 
forms tends to confuse Lhem, and strengthen 
them in the notion that letter writing is not an 
art. The teacher's first duly therefore should 
be to convince the scholar that there is a stan- 
dard form for writing a 1 itter, and then to 
drill him until ho is thoroughly familiar with 
it. Of course he should gne a logical reason 
for every feature in the letter. Having the 
correct form for a business letter, the pupil 
should be made to understand that there arc 
at least two ways of executing that form. 
One way is very aptly described by Charley 
Dickens where he gives us a picture of Sam- 
uel Allen when he wrote at a table, resting upon 

two legfl, a share of the time, with one foot on 
the floor, extended aa far in the rear as possible, 
and the other lost in the maze of the rounds 
of his chair, his head reclining upon his left 
arm, and making with his tongue imaginary 
charactrs, to correspond with those made 
with the pen. Then, mistakes would occur, 
these were rubbed out with the finger, and the 
spot, inked over and wiped ofl' with the coat, 
sleeve. The pen was plunged deeply into the 
ink-bottle and with thumb and finger, and 
clean linen on, he demonstrated, that a given 
quantity of ink will go farther than any other 
known commodity. Then some thoughts 
were too large for ordinary utterance, these 
began witli capitals. The superscription be- 
gan on the very uppermost margin of the en- 
velope, a one cent st^imp adorned the upper 
left hand corner, and a big blot the lower one, 
and this is one way of writing a business let- 
ter. Another way is to first obtain the very 
best materials in the market. We ought to 
exercise a& much taste in selecting our 

as our clothing, they ought to be regarded as 
certain an indication of a person's taste as thg 
clothes he wears. You would not expect Rit- 
chie to execute a fine steel engraving with a cold 
chisel. I defy a man to write a perfect letter 
with poor materials ; the spirit which inspires 
taate i A tidiness is a distinguishing charac- 
teristi'! beiweeu civilization and barbarism. 
Shakespeare tells us that "the apparel oft 
proclaims the man. ' It is as much an act of 
vulgiuity to address a soiled letter to a friend 
as to visit him in shabby clothes or dirty lin- 
en. We all understand that the materials for 
letter writing are almost a certain indication 
of the persons taste. Then let us get the 
very best materials possible. Of course no 
one should think of using in a business letter 
highly perfumed or colored paper or envel- 
opes. Business is too serious a reality to ad- 
mit such trifles and most business men do not 
take any stock in men who do this. 

There are now certain sub-divisions under 
these general divisions I have named. They 
are, Jirst, penmanship ; secoTid, orthography ; 
third, the address of the writer ; fourth, the 
date J fifth, the name and address of the par- 
ty, to whom the letter is written ; sixth, the 
salutation ; seventh, the body of the letter, 
eighth, the complimentary conclusion ; ninth 
the signature. It is not necessary for me to 
explain to you each of these in detail but I 
desire to briefly refer to a few of them. First, 

The penmanship of a business letter ought 
to be as perfect as it is possible for the writer 
to make it, and no parson with unimpaired 
faculties is too old to learn to write. I think 
is was Charles Fox, who when he was appoin- 
ted Secretary of State in England under King 
George, being taunted with bad penmanship 
actually secured the services ofa^Yl■iting teach- 
er to improve his hand-^Vliting. Poor pen- 
manship should not be tolerated for a moment 
in the exercise of business correspondence, 
In fact there is no part of the curriculum of a 
commercial college more important than pen- 
manship. Second, 

It is a weakness of mine that I never could 
fully respect a person that couldn't spell cor- 
rectly. If a student is as old as Methuselah 
and as big as a moose, he is not too old or too 
big to learn to spell. I have heard students 
say they could u«ver learn to Bpell, but I as- 

sured them, and showed them that Huj had 
gone to work in a wrong direction. I thhik 
lo commercial college is excusable for gradu- 
ting a young man who cannot spell properly. 
Another very important element in a busi- 
lesB letter is the 

Very early in the course of his commercial 
studies a student should be instructed in form- 
ing a signature ; not a splurgy, tangled, unin- 
x-Uigible mass of letters, but one plain, legible, 
and always the same, and this signature should 
appear in an unvarying form on all letters, and 
1 commercial paper. I now coi^e to the 
thought, expressed, in the expression 

It is a terse one, and one full of meaaing. The 
direct inference is that we should not mix up 
extraneous affairs with business. Social and 
domestic affairs are out of place in a business 
letter. One of the beet business men I ever 
knew, and one of the most successful was cold, 
rigid, and arbitrary, in business, but in dom- 
estic atTairs, away from his business, be was 
one of the kindest and most genial of men. 
Social and domestic afi^aiiti should not be min- 
gled with business coiTespondence. If it is 
desired to communicate social affairs use a 
separate sheet of paper. In this connection 
is suggested a few words upon business cus- 
tom? ViRt tf'^.iher. of .-iiDericnci in ,i.). 
mercial branches will have noticed (.unito' hiey 
have been in the habit of giving scholars the 
fullest outline for their letters) how utterly 
ignorant they are concerning 

and relations. Young men often suppose, 
that, all that is necessaiy to obtain a bill of 
goods from one of the great wholesale houses, 
is to write them a letter ordering the goods, 
stating the station to which they ore to be 
sent, and to wind up by saying, " On receipt 
of goods, with bill I wih remit check. " I con- 
ceive it to be the duty of the teacher to fully 
explain to the student everything that pertains 
to the practice of selling goods on credit, and 
I think one of the most important duties of 
the commercial teacher is to thoroughly in- 
form himself in regJird to the regulations and 
customs of business bouses throughout the 
conntr}'. It is no disgrace for a teacher to 
question business men of known experience 
and reputation, concerning their business ous. 
toms. I have never yet found one who was 
not willing nnd anxious to communicate such 
information. The commercial teacher will 
obtain in this way some of the most practical 
and valuable information possible to obtain 
and let us bear in mind that it is just this in- 
formation which we are paid for imparting to 
our pupils. 

After the subject for a business letter has 
been given out ; first, let there be the fullest 
discussion concerning this subject, its rela- 
tion to each party and all the circumstances 
bearing upon it, I prefer to do this when 
the subject of the letter is given out. in 
this way the student is given an opportunity 
for the exercise of his judgment in writing 
the letter. Forij 

given is an application for a situation. The 
teacher of experience, knows that some stu- 
dents will use language too egotistical ; oth- 
ere too servile ; others again will not give any 
references ; others will have but little idea of 
what is required in such a letter. The teach- 


er will eiplaia to the student the relations o' 
the applicalioD to his desired employer, giv 
ing what he believes to be a clear idea of ivhat 
in wanted. Then, when the letters have been 
corrected, the teacher will criticise them be- 
fore the whole class, without, of coiu-se, giv- 
Ing any names. I am aware that this is a very 
nice thing to do, but done judiciously, and 
with discretion it will help to imprete the er- 
rors of the class deeply upon their minds. 
We must remember our errors, in order to 
avoid repeating them. 1 believe it will be 
found, that by a judicious selection of subjects 
this plan can be made the means of imparting 
a vast amount of practical and valuable infor. 
mation, that would not be brought before the 
class in any other way. I cannot, in my 
opinion, enforce too strongly this system of 
imparting to the class ail the practical know- 
ledge we may be able to obtain concerning 
business customs and regulations. 

We take young men, comparatively igno- 
rant of these customs and in foui- or live 
months turn them out having at least a fail" 
elementary idea of the relations between 
clerk and employer, between landlord and 
tenant, principal and agent, shipper and fac- 
tor, etc., also having a fair idea of collections 
and remittances, when and how made, and 
having an idea of these customs and relations, 
he is a thousand fold better prepared to enter 
upon the active duties of business life. 

Next in importance, to the thoughts express- 
ed in a business letter, I place the 

First of all, avoid ambiguity. It is not very 
clear that the person wishes us happiness who 
says he " is well, except a bad cold, and hopes 
we are enjoying the same blessing." Cultivate 
in the student a strong, concise, direct method 
of expression. There is no place in "business 
for that class of men who are forever soaring 
after the infinities, or diving after the im- 
fathomable, but who never i:)ay cash," A true 
business man does not hke circumlocution : 
he has no time to Usteu to it, much less to read 
it. You cannot disgust him qiiicker than by 
using long and tangled sentences. Say what 
you have to say in the shortest time, and in 
the fewest words. Hard facts are his admira- 
tion. Facts and cash are his staples in trade. 
Having then a clear idea of what we desii-e to 
communicate, we should express it cogently 
aud.fipncisely. There i^ no better mental ex- 
ere&'than writing coiTect business lettere, I 
defy a practiced rhetorician to write a better 
letter than many of the letters coming from 
many of our hrbt-class business houses. They 
are models of elegant Enghsh. We should 
bring this idea prominently before the class in 
the very beginning of tliis exercise. They 
should be given to understand that they have 
an important duty to perform, and that writing 
a business letter is not the indifferent expres- 
sion of a certain number of ideas. After the 
class is well under way, let the teacher ruth- 
lessly criticise the diction as well as other fea- 
tures of the letter, not forgetting to give the 
class due encouragement and praise for any 
merit. Until a student can write a busint 
rs of orthography and grai 
rrorsof expression, he ought 
I write at least one letter a 
V, eek. 1 am aware that many of our commer- 
cial colleges requii-e business letters in their 
business departments, but this should not dis- 
place the regular exercise. It will require o 
great deal of work and tax the teacher's inven- 
tive faculties to keep up the interest, but it 
will pay in the end. Another important ele- 

letter without e 

paper during the heat of passion is not a sharp 
business man. The business man's true motto 
is " Snamter in modo fortitei' in re. I think 
all will agree with me as to the necessity of 
ueinesB, and especially in busi- 
correspoudence. True poUteness smooths 
the rugged paths of business life. It is an 
apen sesame to position and advantage. 

Another very important feature in a busi- 

An unpunctuated letter looks strangely un- 
lished, and we sometimes make very bad 
ark by not punctuating our sentences ; for 
stance, a newspaper man reporting a minia- 
r as saying, "last Sabbath a lady died while 
rmon in a state of beastly 
We shonld'not leave the mat- 
ter of pimctuation to mere mechanical judg- 
ment. There ought to be clear and well de- 
fined rules governing it. 

I have now given a faint outline of my ideas 
as to what a business letter should be. It 
could not be expected of me on this occasion 
to give all the features of business correspond- 
ence. I know there ai-e many points that I 
have not touched upon, which, had I the time 
I would like to present to your notice. I coidd 
give you my ideas of the correct mechanical 
construction of a business letter, my notions 
as to proper punctuation, of folding and of 
filing ; of superscription ; of the use of seal- 
ing wax and wafers ; also of postal cards, but 
you will find all this touched upon in your let- 
ter writing manuals. What I conceive to be 
wanted is for us all to realize how important is 
this branch in business education, and to apply 
ourselves more earnestly and more systematic, 
ally to the teaching of it. We cannot have our 
classes TiVrite too many letters, nor can we imi- 
tate in teaching this science too closely 
Abraham Lincolns motto: "Keep pegging 

It is a good omen that new Manuals of Let- 
ter-writing are coming out yearly. It tells 
clearly that business correspondence has be- 
come a science, and it is worthy of a position 
among the sciences. 

It is through the medium of correspondence 
that the businessman obtains his thousands of 
this world's accumulations, that knowledge is 
sent broadcast over the land, like the stream 
of sunlight piercing the gleaming of th^mom- 
ing, and I ask why it is that we are Sole to 
communicate by written language with so 
great facility? Why the immeasurable differ- 
ence between the Bushman of South Africa 
and the Anglo Saxon ? I answer. The Bush- 
man never saw the inside of a school-house; 
every Saxonhasone almost within stone-throw. 
Take our schools from us and put them in 
South Africa, and the Bushman and the Saxon 
will change stations in the scale of being at no 
distant period. Let us then, my fellow teach- 
ers, realize more fully our mission in the world, 
and let us take courage and go forward. 

Mr. Packard's Address. 

No more potent element (outside of indus- 
try) can be found in the character of a busi- 
ness man. In fact it is a sine qua iion to his 
success, and no where is it more necessai-y tu 
exercise it, than in business. It was said of 
the Duke of Marlboro' that to be denieda favor 
by him was more pleasant than to have one 
granted by another ; he was a poor scholar 
spoke bad Engh&h, and wrote worse. Mira- 
beau was one of the ughest Frenchmen that 
ever Uved, but his pohte manners raised him 
from a position of shame and disgrace to the 
Presidency of the National Assembly. There 
is no greater evidence of culture and good 
breeding than a politely written lettei mider 
circumstances of great provocation. But 
politeness is not weakness, I would not give 
a fig for a man who did not fire up at the right 
time, but the man who puts very much on 

IPhonograpJiicalli/ reported by Miss Lottie 


Gentlemen op the Convention : — I am 
quite sure you are about to be disappointed in 
what I shall say to you upon the subject which 
has been assigned to me. It was due to you, 
and especially to the committee, who assigned 
me ihis work, that I should have taken the 
requisite time to have prepared carefully a 
pa^jer which would do justice to my subject 
and this convention. In the first place, the 
pressure of other duties made it impossible 
for me to prepare the paper, and I felt that I 
must excuse myself entirely from the task. 
Such was my intention until within the last 
few hours. It has been intimated to me that 
the neglect to present the subject in some 
shape before the convention, would be the 
cause of serious disappointment to some mem- 
bers who would hke to hear in detail more of 
Mr. William's life and work; and also to some 
others who are perhaps better prepared to 
speak upon the subject than myself, I trust, 
therefore, that you will accept what I have to 
say, more as a prelude to what others may add 
than as an attempt to treat the subject with 
auy degree of fulness, In fact, as I now think 
of it, I could not well have \vritten about John 
D. Wilhams. It would eeem too hard and 
formal for me to put down with cold ink upon 

cold paper my thoughts of this dear friend ; 
and it is only in the hope that I may be be- 
trayed into some Appreciative warmth of ex- 
pression by those who surround me, and sym- 
pathize with me. that I am impelled to say 
anything at this time. Another reason why I 
feel gi-eat emban-assmentin the matter is, that 
I am lacking the elementary training which 
Mr. Hunt has just spoken of as being neees- 
saiy for a teacher, and especially a speaker. 
I am peculiarly unfortunate in my tempera- 
ment, and am quite likely to do even worse 
than I fear ; for I sometimes think I am the 
boy who " never had a piece of bread, parti- 
cularly large and wide, but what it fell upon 
the floor, imd always on the butttred side." 

Mr. Wilhams was known by me intimately 
for a number of years. He was unlike any 
other man whom I have known. He was 
peculiar in almost all respects, as real men of 
talent and genius are apt to be. He was 
simply himself, and like no other self. In the 
first place, he was pecuharly a sincere man ; 
so sincere that he was utterly devoid of tact. 
There was but one way for him to do a tiling, 
and that was the cUrect way. If he did not 
succeed thus, he failed ; but he rarely ever 
failed. If he had anything to say, he said it 
without circumlocution, and without consid- 
ering the consequences. He simply struck 
' 'fi-om the shoulder. ' ' I think he couM not help 
doing what he did. He was a poor follower, 
but a splendid leader. He had the faculty of 
making what he did seem to be the best thing 
to be done. He almost always 
his purposes. He never k 
could work twenty hours out of twenty-four 
and gi'ow fat on it. 

I cast no reflections upon any of his disciples 
when I say that his peculiar kind of work has 
never been excelled, and that to-day the very 
best off-hand work of our best ornamental 
writers is, with very httle variation, an imita- 
tion of Mi'. Wilhams's designs. It was a know- 
ledge of this fact that ten years ago induced 
me to say to Mr. Williams "you had better 
collect yom- fugitive work and put it in shape 
for an eugi-aver, put your stamp upon it and 
\ei it go out before the world under its proper 
guise." And out of this suggestion grew at 
last what is known by you all as the Wilhams 
and Packard's Gems of Penmanship. 

Before you can understand Mr. Williams's 
character, and especially his claims to con- 
sideration, you must take into account the 
school in which he was educated, I b&j school, 
though the term may not in all respects be ap- 
propriate. When Ml-. Williams first began to 
teach, the name " Spencerian," as appUed to a 
system of writing, was unknown in this coun- 
try. Not that Ml'. Spencer had not begun to 
work, or had not accomplished some of the 
very best of his work, but his name had not 
reached much beyond his own immediate 
neighborhood. To those of us who are now 
in the field, and who pride ourselves upon being 
Spencerian writers, it may be difficult to 
understaud that there ever was a time when 
the Spencerian standard of wi-iting was un- 
known ; but others of us who were teaching 
before the era of steel pens and ruled paper, 
and who knew of no better way of conveying 
instruction than by setting a copy and tellini 
a sludent to imitate it, have a better sense o 
what has been accomiilished by Mi'. Spencer 
and his co-laborers in bringing the teaching 
of the art to such perfection in methods and 
apphcation, Mr. WiUiams was one of the 
very first to appreciate the beauty of the 
Spencerian writing, and one of the earliest of 
Mr. Spencor's disciples. I am not suro that 
he ever received instruction from Mr, Spencer 
himself, but I know he did of Mr. Kice who 
wa.s one of the early compeers of the father 
of Spencerian writing, and that in his after 
contact with Mi-. Lusk and the Spencerian 
confraternity he made himself a thorough 
master of the whole subject. 

When I first knew Mr, Williams he 
a writer, in any sense in which we i 
derstand that designation. He had great faith 
in himself, and always felt that he did 
well because he did to the best of his ability, 
and as nearly as possible up to his own ideals. 
He was not only an exceUent critic of others, 
but quite as good a critic of himself, for he 
was always just. He had a sharp eye 
tect beauty, and could alwnys see as much 
beauty in another's work 
was always glad to be criticised, and always 
profited by any fair criticism. He had 

great weakness ; it was bis inability to keep a 
secret. It was impossible for him to conceal 
anything that he knew, and when a bright 
thought struck him he was like a spendthrift 
whose money is always supposed to burn a 
hole in his pocket. If a thought entered his 
mind, he acted upon it promptly, and took 
everybody into his counsel. Often through 
this infirmity, if I may so call it, he lost the 
advantage which some others gained of get- 
ting credit for his own ideas. He was as 
generous as he was just; for although he 
would never accept poor work, he was ever 
able to recognize a student's merits, and he 
could often see possibilities which were hid- 
den from less acute eyes. He was apt to 
make enemies for the moment, but his ene- 
mies tm-ned to be lifelong friends. He would 
abuse a student roundly and stir up all the 
ugly feelings in him ; but in the long run the 
student felt that Mr. Williams's abuse was 
only fealty to his own good, and then came 
the reaction which was always in Mr. Williams's 

The question has been frequently asked 
whether he did the work for which he got the 
credit, or whether his crude efforts were not 
beautified by the engraver. I would Uke to 
put that question for ever at rest. I do not 
believe that auy author of \VTiting ever put 
more perfect copies in an engraver's hands 
than did Mr. Williams ; and I have not only 
my own recollections in this matter, but the 
attestation of "all the engravers who worked 
for him. He was most exact in all that he did 
for the engraver, and no improvement was 
ever made upon hie work. In fact, I have 
been told by engravers that any attempt to 
improve upon Mr. Wilhams's lines was at the 
expense of grace and beauty. I have carefully 
thought about his claims to consideration, and 
have tried as closely as possible to estimate 
him as an artist and a teacher, and I have 
come firmly to the conclusion, that in the mat- 
ter of off-hand work, he has never had a supe- 
rior, if he has had an equal. As a teacher of 
practical writing, he will probably never stand 
so highly in the eetimation of those who come 
after him; but if any such suppose that he 
was not a thorough teacher, both of practical 
and ornamental writing, they should at once 
amend that judgment. Taking him all in 
all, I do not know of his superior as a teacher 
or writer, either practical or ornamental. 

There is one thing which should be said of 
him which may be said of all true artists : he 
always knew what was to be the outcome of 
his work. Before a single mark was made 
upon the paper, he had before his mind's eye 
a correct impression of just how the work was 
to look. He made no false movements. His 
work was always laid out with utmost correct- 
ness, precision and judgment. 

I am not at all afraid, gentlemen of the con- 
vention, that the name of John D. Williams 
will ever be forgotten by the true workers in 
our art. He has so enstamped himseK upon 
his time that as the years grow apace, and he 
lives only in our weakening memory and 
through his immortal works, we shall learn 
better and better how to appreciate him and 
all he did. Tou may think that in many 
things I have said I have been extrava- 
gant in my praise, and those of you who stand 
at a safer distance may feel that much that I 
have uttered should have been tempered with 
more coolness of criticism ; but I have spoken 
of a very dear friend. I could not say of him 
or for him less than I have said. If, in your 
judgment, I have in any instance oven'ated 
hie ability or his quahties, I trust that you 
will consider it as the outpom'ing of a gen- 
erous friendship, and a sincere attempt to 
do justice to one who cannot now speak for 

Regular Issue of the Journal. 
Many persons who have from some cause 
failed to receive certain uuiubeis of the 
Journal have written to know if it hassua- 
peuded or if it has been regularly issued. 
We wish it distinctly iiudersfood, that with 
tUe exception oftlie mouthof August, 1877, 
the JoDRNAL has been printed and mailed to 
every subscriber upon our list diuing the 
first week of every month, and should we 
be blessed with life and health, it wilUo con- 
tinue to be mailed, and subscriberH who at 
any time fail, to receive tbe Journal by 
the I5tb of tlie month are requested to noti- 
fy U3 of that fact, that we may discover, 
and remove the cause of the failure. 


BofimesB and Plenty. 

>D|EE tbe frre«n T^nlle^s aud over the billi 
B told bj tbe caUracts. siiog bj- th'« rllle,— 

,0 Bkillf u), tho learned, and the wlllliift &re call< 
,d all las paylnff poHltlon InsUlled ; 

e trowel, the elolile. the pev and the epade. 
Ire ^mblema of worthy employmont, 

Prolific of wealth and enjojment. 

R plain to be ieea there ti buBlnesB tor all, 

i eh eat degree 
e welldlng the h 

Teaching versos Skill. 

All who have been in the prof ession of pen- 
mansbip many years have seen hundreds of 
young men engage in practicing the art with 
firm resolves to excel. Many of these obtfiiu 
considerable skill with the pen, but like fire 
flies shiue for tlie moment and vanish. Such 
are perhaps led into the art by the love of it, 
also with the hope of securing a success wliioli 
others seem to gain, yet in their efforts to 
gain recognition and support, they receive so 
little encouragement that their once bright 
hopes disappear and they abandon their 

Aiter much thought upon the cause of such 
failures we are of the opinion that it lies in the 
almost universal mistake of young penmen in 
believing that success and fame will surely 
come when superior skill is attained. "With 
eyes closed to all else they practice for the 
mastery of curves and forms, and when their 
skill will compare with that of successful pen- 
men they feel that the world owes and should 
reward them with like success. 

Were the attainment of superior skill, only 
the price of success, there would be thousands 
in the profession instead of hundreds. The 
highest success in this world is gained by 
those who are best able to serve their fellow 
raeu. In penmanship those who have been 
the most famous were those who worked with 
their very souls to gain ability as teachers. 
The hundreds who remember Ltisk, Spencer 
and Williams, well know that without their 
masterly ability as teachers they would have 
never gained their fame. What is true of 
these men bos been true of all who have left 
names on the roll of fame. 

The rising penman is too apt to think that 
the difference between himself and some 
famous penman, is only the difference in skill, 
and, when flattered with compliments to their 
skill, feel that they are making rapid progress 
to success, and are blind to the development 
of any ability outside of the absohite control 
of the pen. To them the science and n 
teaching is of small account ; yet with those 
who uru achieving success which makes them 
famous, the learning of methods and develop- 
ment of ability to teach is their highest aim. 
The young penman says, give me skilL The 
older one says, give me a better knowledge of 
methods. How can I teach better? We 
believe that in the work of improving one's self 
as a teacher by the careful investigation of 
methods, and ever vigorous work in the class, 
room one will gain a knowledge of the art and 
ability to interest others in it that will be a 
power ill securing the recognition and support 
of the public. JIany look around them and 
eay that the country is strewn with copy-books 
which supplant the work of the penman, but 
in spite of this, we say, that the teacher who 
possesses a superior knowledge of the art can 
convince the public that his knowledge of 
methods and ability to teach will enable him 


to far surpass the work done by the limited 
instruction found in those books. 

The fact that the copies presented in copy- 
books excel in artistic skill need not discom-age 
one or prevent success, for even the authors 
will not claim that they contain one-twentieth 
of the iuformation, as to superior teaching, 
which they themselves possess. Then to 
those ambitious to succeed, we would say that 
success can be attained by all who will become 
superior teachers. Knowledge more than skill 
is required. Ability to make others good pen- 
men, not merely ability as penmen, is neces- 
sary to a high degree of success. 

People surround a stove because it gives off 
heat and thereby administers to them, and th^ 
pubhc flock most around the penman who is 
best able to supply them with skill. 

That the art of teaching is something de- 
serving of recognition is shown in the estab- 
lishment of Normal Schools, wherein each 
State recognizes that a person to be a teacher 
requires a special and thorough training. 
Mere knowledge is not enough. Abihty to 
impart it to others is requisite to success. 

Not many months since a young mau said 
to us that nothing shoiUd stop his practice till 
he attained the skill of Lyman Spencer and 
Mr. Flickinger. A few weeks later we learn- 
ed that this young man had been dismissed 
from his excellent position, for the reason that 
his heart was wholly wrapped up in his prac- 
tice for skill He lacked enthusiasm as a 
teacher, and took little or no interest in the 
progress of his pupils. To him skill was all. 
teaching irksome, and like hundreds of others 
who fail to serve the public well, he has van- 
ished from the profession. There is nothing 
which drags the profession of teaching down 
like ihe lack of success of indifferent time- 
serving teachers. There are not a few who 
seem to think that because they write well 
they should be paid hberally to stay in a room 
with classes of poor writers a few hours per 
day. They do not realize that they should be 
alive with enthusiasm and working with their 
brains to invent methods of illustrating topics 
and interesting pupils. To be in the presence 
of a preacher and teacher like Beecheristo be 
filled with ideas forced into one through a 
skill in delivery which he has gained through 
constant earnest effort. To succeed as a 
teacher is to be ever in earnest. Earnest in 
the work of investigating and developing 
methods, and by cheerful, yet vigorous effort, 
make each hour one wherein one does his best 
to do all that he can for the advancement of 
his pupils. Such teachers are always wanted, 
they always succeed, while those who hepe to 
rise through skill alone are the ones most apt 
to become discouraged and leave the profes- 

Renewal of Subscriptions. 

Subscril'^r- uliM .1 -irr lo coiitiuiie to 
receiv ll,- i. ,1 i not fuil to re- 

new tlit-ii M . , r- tJH' Journal will 

in all <.';ts.- Ml iii.r.iMinMr.i at Uio end of 
the pfcri(jd iai which iiie subscription is 

Back Numbers 
of the Journal cp.n be supplied, beginning 
witb No. 6, of Vol. 1. No prior number 
can be furnished. 

Spice in the Convention. 

At the opening of the late Penman's 
Convention each member as the roll was 
called, arose in his pliice, and gave by way 
of an introduction a short autobiography, 
which in several cases was quite iugenious 
and humorous in the manner of its recital 
so much 80 as to be well worthy of a place 
in the column of the Joubnal, but want of 
apace in the present number prevents our 
giving more than the following specimen 
by James H. Lansley, Ph, D., Principal 
of the Elizabeth (N. J.) Business OoUege. 

*' More than forty years ago, I first 
the light of dxy, in Albany, N. Y. At tho 
age of 19 1 had not received 1 year's school 
ing and should you converse with me ten 
minutes, you would doubtless be so im. 
pressed with this fact that you would deem 
it probable I had not attended acbool 
siuce.^ I am married and have more child- 
ren than I have dollars in my pocket and 
can say that I enjoy the presence of the 
children more than the absence of the dol- 
lars. I have been teaching nineteen years 
and am not wealthy, idthough I had always 
bread enough and some to give away. By 
the way I have given more away than was 
ever given to me and I am heartily sorry fur 
having giving some of it for I received no 
thanks from the recipients. Now, while I 
am not rich, I have often been thankful 
that I was handsome which you see, com- 
pensates me for my lack of wealth. I am 
yet on the sunny side of .fifty and hope 
to teach at least twenty years more to enjoy 
the fruita of what I expect to earn. Hav- 
ing left my impromptu speech at home I 
am compelled to decline making any fur- 
ther remarks. 

The following original poem which be 
characterised as an "interlude,'' was also 
read by Dr. Lansley before the eonvention. 

1 gold or with silver It cannot be bought; 
iroly a fortune, oblalnBd at hiyb eoet. 

iingly e 

officers all, and 

any braiua and will p 

Bui ognin I dlgrcsa— I'll now to n 

lailere, bavo worked to a man, good and tmo. 

:he managers all, for the good they're done. 
' we are friendly, then nothing la lost, 

each of his neighbor lu charity speak— 
iHty old gate-hinge, if oiled, will not squeak ; 

Primary Instruction in Penmanship. 

Mr. G. H. Shattuck read a paper before the 
late Penman's Convention, on Primary In- 
struction in Penmanship, in which he said no 
branch was more neglected. 

That statistics proved that more than half 
the children in the public schools receive all 
their school education in the primary departs 

He rend extracts from Massachusetts School 
Reports, edited by Hon. Horace Mann, and 
Reports of the New York city schools showing 
great improvtments in methods of instruction 
in penmanship, in many of the public schools 
of our large cities, during the last twenty-five 
years, from which we copy only the following ; 

Horace Mann says, " the defect (in teaching 
writing) may be traced to the deficiencies In 
the qualifications of teachers," Andfrom the 
New York city Report for 1877, the following 
encouraging extract is given : ■' Specimens by 
some of the first grade pupils in the primaries 
surpass in neatness of style those of which 
were formerly exhibited by the advanced clas- 
ses of the grammar tirades." 

He claimed that all pupils not physically in- 
capacitated could become good writers, that 
they did not, was a just criticism on their 
teachers. That the itinerant writing masters 
should be recognized as proper instructors for 
children after leaving the public schools, and 
should so establish themselves that youth 
could from time to time receive instructions 
Tiuder the same teacher. 

He summarized the difficulties in the way 
of better instruction in writing in the primary 
schools as follows ; 

First —■ Normal Schools do not Impart 
" methods " of teaching writing. 

Second — School Soards do not make it a 
requirement that primary teachers shall have 
the proper knowledge to impart primary in- 
struction in penmanship. 

Third —School Superintendants and Princi- 
pals do not examine the writing and give 
oredita as in other studies. 

Fourth —Writing is not an especial requisite 

promotion, and the " writing hour " often 
taken to secure better results in other 

Fifth — Teachers do not bringtheirinstmo- 
tions down to the capacity of the most incor- 
rigible pupils. 

He would have teachers take this for a 
otto : Take care of the poor writers, the 
good ones will take care of themselves, 

many other points presented 
bearing directly upon the subject, aud others 
tely, but of sufficient interest to be 
properly presented in the paper, but space will 


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RNAL so Interesting 

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'he Lord's Prayer 19x24 

, or before the twentieth. 
! by post-offlce order or by 


The Joamal for November 
Will be one of unusual attraction 
and interest. We have the positive 
promise of specimens for publication 
from the pen of that prince among 
penmen. H. W. Flickinger. We shall 
also publish a very able and interest- 
ing review of the life and services of 
P. R. Spencer. Sr., written for the 
Penman's Convention, (owing to a 
mis-direction it was not received 
BO as to be read), by Wm. P. Cooper, 
of Kingsville, Ohio, who was an in- 
timate friend and associate of Mr. 
Spencer. This review will be accom- 
panied with a new and excellent por- 
trait cut of Mr. Spencer. 

We have several other very interest- 
ing articles promised and in hand suf- 
ficient, in all, to warrant us in saying 
that that number will be one r)f the 
most interesting' and valuable yet is- 
sued. We expect, also, to print the 
largest edition of thnt number of any 
yet printed— probably as high as 15,- 
nno. Specimen copies will be mailed 
to every educational institute in the 
United States, and to a large list of 
school offices and other persons in- 
terested in education and not subscri- 
bers, which will render it esceptional- 
y valuable as a medium of adver- 
tising. We shall insert not to ex- 
ceed tii-o pages of advertisements 
atounegular rates. No discounts for 
that number can be made. Parties 
desiring space should apply early. 

Hints apon Teaching Writing. 

To be able to awaken, and maintain 
earnest thought and study, on the part 
of the pupil, and skillfully direct the 
same, is a paramount qualification for 
successful teaching. Indeed the pow- 
er to do this is the real secret of the 
wonderful success that has attended 
the labors and immortalized the names 
of our gi*eatest teachers, not of writ- 
ing alone, but of all departments of 
education. The interested and atten- 
tive pupil is always a success, while 
the indifferent pupil is a certain fail- 
ure ; the former seems almost to drink 
in knowledge, while the latter receives 
it as by force. Many teachers of writ- 
ing rely mainly upon the imitative 
power of pupils for their success which 
is a fatal error; writing should be 
taught mechanically more than by 

An imitative pupil may manifest re- 
markable progress, and be able to imi- 
tate with the greatest fidelity the most 
perfect copy, so long as it is before 
him, and yet write most awkwardly 
when it is removed, from the fact that 
there remains no correct mental con- 
ception or ideal of writing to guide 
his practice; not so with the pupil who 
has been taught mechanically, and 
has learned the correct analysis of 
each letter, studied its form and con- 
struction, at the same time that the er- 
rors in his own writing have been criti- 
cised and corrected according to es- 
tablished rules and principles — though 
he may at the outset be greatly dis- 
tanced by tb'e imitative genius — he 
will, in the end. become much the 
more skillful. The removal of the copy 
matters little to him, its form, having 
become so completely impressed upon 
his mind that it continues, as it were, 
constantly before him, a perfect ideal, 
to reproduce which, the hand w-iil ever 
strive, and ultimately attain. Writing, 
in all its grace, ease, and perfection, 
must first clearly exist in the mind, 
before the hand can. by any amount 
of exercise, be taught to produce it. 
The hand can never transcribe a form 
more perfect or beautiful than the 
ideal of its master— the mind. Hence, 
the vital importance of preceding 
and accompanying all practice, in 
writing, with a careful study of its 
mechanical construction. The exer- 
cise or copy for each lesson should 
he short, embracing but a few letters; 
and they should be systematically ar- 
ranged so as to present, forcibly and 
concisely at each lesson, some impor- 
tant feature of writing. 

Our own method of instruction has 
been to use copies, carefully written 
or printed, upon short, movable slips, 
the length of each not exceeding one- 
fourth of the width of a sheet of fools- 
cap, thus concentrating the attention 
and practice of the pupil upon a few 
principles and letters at a time. At 
the opening of each lesson, one of 
these slips would be passed to each pu- 
pil of the class, then written upon the 
black-board and carefully analyzed, 
first by the teacher, then by the class. 
The pupil will thus not only gain a 
correct conception of the proper form 
and construction of letters, but be 
thereby supplied with standards and 
measures by which to gauge and test 
the quality and accuracy of his own 
writing ; in short enable him to become 
his own critic. General criticisms 
would be made during each lesson, at 
the board, upon the writing of the 
class and individuals without being 
personal, in which would be presented 
by the most ingenius and striking il- 
lustrations possible, the essentials of 
good writing, and most conspicuous 
faults in bad writing. 

For instance, we would say to the 

class that one may learn to make ev- 
ery letter perfectly, and yet be a very 
bad writer, which would be most 
strikingly illustrated by writing a 
word upon the board, in vs hich every 
letter, taken by itself, should be as 
nearly faultless as possible, but very 
disproportionate in size, thus: 

At the next lesson illustrate the bad 
effect of uneven spacing, thus: 


At the following lesson we would 
present the special beauty of a varie- 
ty of slant in writing, thus: 

Slant, though quite different, will 
not be specially conspicuous in the 
contracted letters, but may be made to 
appear strikingly so by drawing ex- 
tended lines through the parts of the 
letters, thus: 

At one of the early lessons should 
be illustrated, by means of a scale, 
the relative heights of letters, thus: 



TW " 


This method practiced through a 
course of even twenty lessons, will 
not fail to secure to the pupil not only 
satisfactory improvem.ent, but will es- 
tablish him on a basis upon which he 
can continue to practice and improve 

It will, of course, be understood 
that what we have said relative to the 
use of movable slips applies only to 
professional teachers, and to special 
writing classes, not to schools, public 
or private, where it is found most con- 
venient and practical to use copy 

The Unparalleled Progress of Writing 

during the Past Twenty-flve Years. 

The improvements made in the art of 
writing and metbods of imparting instruc- 
tion, in this country during the past twenty- 
five years lias probably bad no parallel in 
any other country or age. 

This extraordinary advancement has 
been the result of several causes. lst.~ 
The rapid growth of trade and commerce, 
demanded greater celerity and ease in 
writing, than was practical witb the old 
shaded round hand, written witb ibe finger 
movement, which was the prevailing style 
twenty-five years ago, 

2d. The sharp rivalry, between the sev- 
eral authors and publishers uf the leading 
systems of writing. 

3d. The fierce competition between the 
numerous commercial or business colleges. 

4tb. The discovery of the various pho- 
tograpbio methods for reproducing pen 
drawings upuu glas.t, slone and metal for 
|)rinting, wbeieby the pen work is essen- 
tially the engraving, thus enlarging the 
penman's sphere of labor, and offering a 
larger reward for bis skillful work. 

Twenty-flve years ago Spencer was just 
beginning to win fame, while unfolding bis 
almost transcendent genius, as a knight of 
the quill, in bis log cabin (Jericho) at Gen- 
eva. O. Tlie Diiutoos and Paysons were 
winning their first laurels at Boston ; E. 
G. Folsom at Cleveland, O. ; Dufl", at Pitts- 
burgh, P«.:Oiittcnden. at Phila., Pa., and 
George W. Ea.stman, of Eochester, N. Y., 
a splendid penman, and the originator of 

the system of actual business training in 
Business Colleges, were then leading off 
in the grand commercial cbllege move- 
ment; they were soon followed by Bell, 
Bryant, Stratton, Packard, and others. 

The syatem of writing, and fore-arm or 
muscular movement, taught by Prof. 
Spencer, soon gained wide spread celebri* 
ty, and pupils came to his log cabin from 
far and near. All of them became active 
and most of them skillful disciples, and 
taught — or advocated " Spencerian " with 
a degree of enthusiasm and skill, which 
did honor alike to their own faith, and the 
skillful instruction of their master, and from 
among them have been many of our most 
noted and worthy teachers. 

Prof. Spencer soon published his system, 
but in so imperfect a form as to give little 
satisfaction or honor to its author. It 
was engraved on stone and printed in 
form of copy slips, but very soon after was 
published in form of copy books. About 
the same time the Payson, Dunton k 
Scribner, system was published at Boston ; 
for several years these systems were local 
in their use, the P. D. & S. being adopted 
generally and was the leading system in 
New England, while the Spencerian held 
sway, and spread ' rapidly through the 
West, though both were imperfect, they 
each had peculiar merits, and their fame 
and use rapidly extended, until their 
spheres met, then began the mott ener- 
getic and often acrimonious rivalry. The 
agents and friends of one system would 
often (in their own judgment — at least) 
annihilate the other, by pointing out the 
most numerous and fatal deficiencies, in 
this manner, while to their mutual astonish- 
ment, neither was annihilated, both rapidly 
learned wisdom from the criticisms of their 
rivals, and both systems were immediately 
revised, neither losing anything by the 
peculiar merit of the other. Each system 
counted among its friends and associated 
authors, many of the most skillful and in- 
dustrious, teachers, and as revision baa 
followed revision, each has eliminated 
faults made conspicuous by the criticisms 
of rivals, while such new merits as could 
be suggested by the most skillful and ex- 
perienced teachers, aided by equally skill- 
ful engravers have been added, until now 
both systems seem faultless. Nor has the 
strife of competition been limited to these 
two leading systems, many others have en- 
livened the fight with their presence ; 
among the more prominent of which are 
the Ellsworth, Potter k Hammond, Wil- 
liams k Packard, Thompson's (Eclectic 
series) Babbitonian, and others too numer- 
ous to mention. All have been in the strife, 
and have no doubt each contributed some- 
thing toward the astonishing progress aud 
improvement which we see as the result. 

Scarcely less favorable and efiective for 
substantial progress in writing, has been 
the influence exerted by the numerous 
commercial or business colleges of the 
country; especially is this true of Orna- 
mental and Artistic Penmanship. With 
these institutions fine penmanship has 
generally been a desideratum, and in the 
many sharp rivalries which have occurred 
among the different representatives of 
these iuhtitutions, the relative display of 
skillful penmanship, more frequently than 
any other, has been the test for excelleuoe 
and popularity of the institution. 

The most eJaborato and skillful speci- 
mens have been executed, almost without 
number, not only to adorn the rooms of 
the colleges, but for public exhibition and 
competition at fairs, aud other centres of 
attraction. In some instances celebrated 
pen artiste have been employed for long 
periods of time almost exclusively to exe- 
cute specimens for this purpose. John D. 
Williams was so employed by the Bryant 
k Stratton chain of colleges, no link of 
which was considered to be properly equip- 
ed without having oue or more specimens 
from his matchless pen ; these specimeLB 
became at once a high standard for emu- 
lation and imitation, but not to be ex* 


oellod by the pnpils and teaohers of pen- 
mansbip tbroughont the country, and have 
thus exerted a wide and powerful influ- 
ence upon the style and degree of excel- 
lence attained in this department of pen- 

Subsequently the publication of the 
Williams & Packard gems, contributed still 
more to advance the standard of Ornamen- 
tal Peumanship, by furnishing the teacher 
and pupil with a more full, ready and 
practical guide, than any hitherto placed 
before them. As the outgrowth of all this 
rivalry and competition, we have not only 
several of the most perfect, beautiful and 
practical systems of writing in the world, 
but a Inrger number of skillful writers and 
teachers than has blessed any other age or 
people ; in place of a single Spencer we 
now have several, while scattered all over 
the country are scores of penman, whose 
present skill wonld, to say the least, have 
been astonishing twenty-five years ago. 

Ornamental PenmansMp. 

Formerly, and until within a few 
years, the emire scope and purpose of 
Ornamental Penmanship was limited 
to striking a few off-hand floui-ishes, 
in form of an eagle, swan, quill, or 
other simple figure, for the sole pur- 
pose of amusing or attracting patrons. 
This, with text-lettering, was all that 
was necessary or desirable. 

But more recently, and since the ex- 
tensive introduction of the various 
methods of reproduction of pen and 
ink work by photography, the demand 
for elaborate and perfect penmanship, 
as well OS the incentive for its execu- 
tion, has been largely increased. Now 
the skillful penman practically be- 
comes an engraver, and finds a ready 
demand for his skill in the execution 
of elaborate and artistic designs for 
all commercial purposes. This new 
demand opens to the really skillful 
pen-artist a well-nigh unlimited field 
for profitable labor, but while the de- 
mand is gi'eat, it is most exacting as re- 
gards merit. Work executed for the 
purpose of reproduction must have cer- 
tain qualities of line and character, or 
it fails. It must also have high artis- 
tic merit to withstand the criticism 
and test to which it is subjected, since 
it at once enters in direct competition 
with the various kinds of engraving, 
and must have nearly equal perfection 
and artistic merit, or it is at once re- 
jected, and the labor of the artist is 

Under the stimulus of this new de- 
mand, we anticipate seeing a very 
marked and rapid development of the 
penman's art and skill, certainly there 
is now no field for artistic labor more 
inviting or promising for success. 

Basiness Correspondence. 
We invite special attention to the 
admirable address, on our first and se- 
cond pages, upon " Business Corres- 
pondence." delivered before the late 
"Penman's Convention," in New York 
by Prof. L. L. Sprague, Principal of 
the Wyoming Commercial College, 
Kingston, Pa. This is a subject of 
great importance, and one in which, 
all persons are more or less interested, 
while the graceful, interesting and 
effective manner in which Professor 
Sprague presents the various points 
in his subject, will serve to make his 
address very interesting reading mat- 

A large number of valuable commu- 
nications and articles have been re- 
ceived, for which it is impossible to 
find space in the present issue. We 
shall give all, having sufficient merit, 
a place as soon as possible. 


Prof. James B. Cundiff, vice-princi- 
pal of Soule's Commercial College, New 
Orleans, La., died September 15. at the 
age of thirty-three years. Mr. Cun- 
diff was a native of Owensburg, Ky. 
He was a skillful writer and popular 
teacher. He was prominent as a Mas- 
ter Mason, and Knights Templar, both 
of which fraternities were largely rep- 
resented at his burial. He leaves a 
large circle of warm friends. 

Mr. Cundiff was a zealous friend, and 
earnest worker for the Journal, having 
forwarded the names of over one hun- 
dred subscribers within a year past, 
and the largest number sent by any 
one person during that period. 


Can any of our readers furnish us 
with information regarding the where- 
abouts of James A. Congdon. About 
one year since we executed work 
for him, and gave credit for engrav- 
ing and printing to a considerable 
amount, since which time we have 
failed to receive any communication 
from him, or information concerning 

If he has deceased, we desire to com- 
memorate him by anappropriate oh it- 
uary notice; if he is living in obscuri-. 

The Writing-Claas. 

Let us enter the Primary Department in one 
of the busy bee-hives of education, in this or 
some other city, and superintend, with the 
teacher's kind permiesion. the introduction of 
writing among pupils, whose flexible fingers, 
and soft, pliant rausclee, are quite ready for 
training and practice. We shall assume this 
to be the first preBentation of the subject. Let 
this opening exercise be purely conversational 
and illustrative- 

I shall first inquire of the children, How 
many of you could tell yuur parents or friends 
what you have done in school to-day ? All say 
they could. How many of you could tell this 
to your parents or friends, if they were away 
from you ? All say they could not. Would 
you like to be able to tell about what you are 
doing, or about what is taking place, to those 
who are absent? All say they would. Well, 
I am going to teach you how to do this ; but, 
first, let ue have a little talk about it. "What 
is that your teacher has in her hand ? They 
answer, "A book." "WiU you tell me some, 
thing about the book? George says, ■' It has 
red covers " ; Susie says, " It is_a small book. " 
You have told me that your teacher has a 
small red book. When you said "book," 
"red," and "Bmall," you made sounds, which 
meant book, red aud small. I will now make 
on the blackboard some signs which you all 

I then write in Boman letters the word book. 

ing, you use the Toioo and month ; hi writing, 
you use the band and arm. 

hi the next lesson I will teach you howto 
sit when writing, how to hold your pen or 
pencil, how to place your writing-tablet, or 
copy-book, and begin to teach you how to 

If a portion of each lesson was spent in oon- 
versational exercise about, and in blackboard 
illustration of, writing, before setting out with 
pen or pencil, it would well repay the effort. 
The children should be given appropriate 
finger-exercisefl for a few moments previous 
to writing. Extending and contracting the 
fingers, separating aud drawing them together, 
and five-finger piano exerciBes, practiced on 
the desk, will help develop and train the 
muscles used in writing. 

Make httle pupils, Teacher, fairly 
hungry for the task, and eager to begin it. Be 
sure they know what it is they are doing ; why 
they are doing it ; and how it is to be done. — 
Primary/ TeacJier. 

(To be continued.) 

The Special Attention 
of teachers, card writers, authors, and pro- 
prietors of business colleges is invited to 
the advantage of inserting a standing bnai- 
uesscard of three lines in the first column 
of the JouitNAL. Its circulation is now so 
large aud extensive as to reach, more or 
less, the neighborhood of all persons in 
theUnitedStatesorCanada. The charge is 
small, and can hardly fail of being many 
times repaid. 


ty we would shed the refulgence of 
our light upon the darkness that en- 
shrouds him. 

College Currency. 
We are now getting up a series of 
bank notes for use in Business College 
banks. The bills will be printed on a 
good quality of bank-note paper, and 
got up in an attractive style. Parties 
desiring to replenish their currency, 
or procure an entirely new outfit, are 
requested* to send for samples, and es- 
timates; also, for certificates, diplo- 
mas, display cuts, etc. 

Proceedings of the Penman's Convention. 
We have on hand several hundred 
copies of the September No. of the 
Journal, containing the report of the 
proceedings of the Convention. Single 
copies sent on receipt of 10c ; 15 copies. 
$1.00; 50 copies, $3.00. 

Teaching versus Skill. 
All young penmen who aspire to 
fame and success in their profession 
should twice read, carefully, the nrti- 
cle by Prof. Hinman, under the above 
caption, on page three. He happily pre- 
sents solid facts and sound advice. 

Oar Thanks 
Are due, and hereby tendered, 
to Mr. J. T. Granger, Miss Lottie Hill. 
Prof, C. E. Cady, and Mr. Miller, for 
verbatim reports of remarks and ad- 
dresses at tho Penman's Convention. 

Children, what do you see on the blackboard? 
They answer. "Book." But is this thing the 
same thing which you saw in your teacher' 
hand? "No." Does this mean the sam 
thing? "Yes." Now, if I write this word 
before it (writing tho word red in Boman let- 
ters), what will it mean? "Kedbook." I 
next write a and small before it, in the same 
characters: what does it mean now? "'.i small, 
red book." Now, children, the words which I 
wrote on the blackboard mean the same things 
as the words you just spoke. There arf 
ways of using words, —speaking them, and 
writing them. Will some scholar spell aloud 
the word rerff Harry spells, " R-c-d." How 
many sounds did Harry use in spelling the 
word red ? " Three." How many letters did 
I use in writing the word red? "Three. 
You see that the spoken words are made np of 
single letters. Speaking, tlien, is telling what 
we think by the use of certain sounds ; and 
writing, is telling what we think by the use of 
letters. These letters are signs of the spoki 

Will you now give me some short words 
write on the blackboard ? The children pelt 
me with words faster than I can write them. 
I put down, in Koman letters, ros», bee, blue, 
boy, girl. Did you think these things before 
you spoke them ? ' ' Yes. " I now add one or 
two short words to the above-written, and call 
upon the pupils to read the phrases aloud. 
They read, " A white rose " ; "A honoy-bee" ; 
"The blue sky." Did I think these words 
before I wrote them? "Yes." Then child- 
ren, you spoke what you thought, and I wrote 
what I thought, — so wliat you think can be 
either spoken or written. You have already 
learned to speak what you think ; you must 
learn to write what you think. In speak- 


1 certainly n 

fl. F. R.. Cuffey'sCove. Cal. Your writmg 
is very good, but it has the set stiff, school 
boy appearance, which you can overcome only 
by careful and prolonged practice, you need to 
practice fore arm movement exercises, there 
is a manifest hesitancy in your movement es- 
pecioUy when you attempt the large capital let- 
ters, your spacing is quite unequal, with a httle 
careful attention to the movement, and your 

nor faults, you can render your writing 


J. A. G. Parkersburg. W, Va., asks ue to 
give what we consider the best method of 
teaching penmanship in pubUc schools in a 
city where there are eight to ten rooms in 
the several buildings. That is a question of 
great importance, and cannot be briefly an- 
swered in this column. Prof, Payson begins 
3werthatquestionin our present number, 
and will continue the same in each consecu- 
number until, we trust, it will be fully and 
satisfactniy answered. 

J. F. P. West Cbariotte, Yt. We have no 
choice between the system you mention, we 
t know where the pens you mention can 
be had. Your writing has considerable merit. 
It lacks system, your loops are too thin and 
sloping. It is irregular in size and does not 
fohow the line, read editorial " Hints on 
teaching Writing," on the fourth page. 


F- N, H. The principal fault with your 
writing is its uneven spacing, and a tendency 
to bring your capitals below the line, this re- 
BultB from the fact that you use the muscular 
movement only in making your capitals and it 
ia not Hufficiently practiced to be fully at your 
command, we would advise you to practice it 
more in your small letters, read editorial on 
fourth page, entitled "Hints on Teaching 

0. O. S.. Kamson. Pa. How manysystemB 
of penmanship are there in the V. S. at pre- 
sent ? We could not say how many, we know 
of nineteen authors of copy books, now in 
use, and five of compendiums, undoubtedly 
there are more. Not more than five or six of 
theae can lay well founded claims to any dis- 
tinct system, many are almost without system, 
others are simply re-arranged or compiled 
from other systems. 

What do you consider the best manner of 
giving instruction in normal schools ? Would 
you use copy books ? In answer to this ques- 
tion, we cannot do better than to refer the 
writer to our editorial in another column, en- 
titled " Hints upon teaching Writing. " 

O. J. W.. Vacaville. Gal. You write a very 
correct hand, it is rather too large and unev- 
enly spaced. A little careful study nnd prac- 
tice would bring your writing to a creditable 
standard for a teacher. See editorial upon 
'■ Hints on Teaching Writing," fourth page. 

T. N. B., Wooster, O. We can furnish all 
back numbers of the Joitbnal from and in- 
cluding September 1877, (No. 6, Vol. 1.) they 
will be sent at regular subscription rates. 

F. J. S., Jewett Gity. Conn. We do not 
know the present address of M. B. Worthing- 
ton. J. C. Mulkins. is at Evansville, Ind. 

in which he incloses, with skillful flourishing 
by himself, aspeeimen flourished by one of his 
pupils. Master Orchard, which for a boy only 
nine years of age is very creditable. 

J. N. V. Harrington, Rochester, N.Y. , sends 
some of the best specimens of card writing 
received during the month, he is now per- 
Qjanently located at Rochester, New York. 
Ab a card writer, he has few equals. 

N. G. & E. L. Cameron, students at Mussel- 
man's (Qnincy, m.) Business College, sends 
packages of very handsomely written cards. 

F. B. Davis, Jewitt City, Conn., writes an 
easy [graceful, and business like letter, in 
which he incloses several well written cards, 

D. L. Musselman, Principal of the Gem 
City Business College, Quincy, HI., sends an 
elegant set of off-hand capitals, 

H. N. Kibbe, Utica, New York, writes a 
graceful letter in which he incloses several 
well executed card specimens. 

M. E, Bennett, Schenectady, N Y. , forward 
an elaborate and well executed specimen com- 
phmentaryto the Journal. 

Bertha Vernon, Memphis, N. Y., incloses 
several attractive card specimens. 

No. 9. 

he ia open for an engagement to teach \ 

F. P. Preuitt, proposes to spend the fall 
and winter teaching writing in Texas, he is a 
fine writer and successful teacher, we wish 
him success in his new field of labor. 

Walter C. Hooker, one of the most skillful 
writers and popular teachers, in New York, is 
teaching large classes in the western part of 
the State. 

H. W. Bearce is teaching large classes of 
writing at St- Albans, Vt. Mr. Bearce is a 
, and is highly complimented by 

St. Albans Dail}/ ifaxrnger. 

B still a nimble writerand 

The Columbus (O.) StaUsman of Sept. 2d, 
gives a somewhat lengthy and highly compli- 
mentary review.of the Columbus Business Col- 
lege, conducted for twelve years past, by 
Prof, E. K. Bryan. It says : 

" One can scarcely enter a bank or business 
house in Columbus without finding one or 
more graduates of this excellent college. The 
prospect for a good attendance at the open- 
ing of the fall term is flattering to the man^ 
agement, and gratifying ahke to Mr. Bryan 
and his numerous well-wishers. There are no 
false inducements held out, and it is a source 
of satisfaction for us to be able to say that 
the institution is in every way worthy of the 
confidence of the pubhc." 

J. E, Soule, principal of the Bryant and 
Stratton, Philadelphia, (Pennsylvania), Busi- 
ness College, has associated with him Prof. 
H. W. Plickinger, and as will be seen by 
an announcement in the advertising columns, 
has opened a special department, for instruc- 
tion in the higher grades of penmanship. 
Both Messrs. Soule and Flickinger deservedly 
rank among the very first of skillful penmi 
and teachers in this country. The facilities 
thus offered, for valuable instruction, by their 
combined skill and experience, can hardly be 
equalled elsewhere. 

During a recent visit to Philadelphi 
visited the Union Business College conducted 
by Prof. Thos, May Pcirce, whom we found, 
smiling and happy, in the enjoyment of a 
larger degree of prosperity than hiid been 
perienced before in seven years. Prof. Sonic 
of the B. and S. Business College also report- 
ed a largely increased patronage, 

P, A, Leddin, principal of Leddin's Business 
College, Memphis, Tenn.. visited 
days since. He was obhged by the ravages of 
the yellow fever to close his college, which 
previously in a prosperous condition. He 
will not return until the fever has disap- 

The twentieth annual announcement and 
catalogue of "Packard's Business College," 
has been received. It is a model of good tasre 
and common sense in advertising. We are 
glad to learn that the mstitution has opened 
this season with a largely increased patronage. 
The Davenport Iowa College Circular is a 
very tastily gotten up sheet. The college is 
conducted by D, R, Lilibridge and J. H. H. 
Vuleutine. Mr, Lilibridge en joys the reputa- 
tion of being one of the most accompliBhed 

R. A. Lambert, formerly at the LaCrosse 
(Wis.) Business College, and D. Darling, have 
opened a Business College at Winona, Minn. 
Prof. Lambert is an accomplished writer, and 
has the reputation of being a snccessful 

The Cash Book issued by W. L. Blackman, 
of the Allentown (Pa.) Business College, is 
of the most decidedly attractive and read- 
able college papers that has come into otu: 

Attractive and business-like circulars with 
specimens have been received from Messrs. 
Howe and Powers, the enterprising proprietors 
of the Metropolitan Business College, Chicago, 

The Bryant and Stratton Commercial School 
of Boston, under charge of Prof. Hibbard. 
continues to enjoy a remarkable degree of 
well-deserved prosperity. 

Lanslcy's (Elizabeth, N. J.) Business Col- 
lege journal, is spicy and interesting, and in- 
dicates that its publisher is on the sunnysidf 
of prosperity. 

In the November number of the Jodbnaj 
Prof. Flickinger will manifest his skill through 
a specimen from his pen. 

Exchange Items. 

The IIo7ne Quett for September, is of 
usual interest, especially the Penman's Depart- 
ment, which is well edited and full of interest- 
ing matter, it gives conclusive evidence that itf 
new editor. Professor H. B. McCreary, 
Principal of the Utica New York Business 
College liy no means mistook his calling when 
he entered the editorial field. 

The I\ninan's HHp published by William 
Clark. Toledo, Iowa, dated September 25th_ 
is received. It is improving in appearance 
and contents. But although announced as a 
semi-monthly, it comes to us about every 
other month, why are we thus slighted, 
friend Clark ? 

The Rapid Writer and Takigraplter pub- 
lished bi-monthly by D. P. Lindsley, 212 E. 
39th street. New York, is a fifty-page maga^- 

ae devoted to short -hand writing. 

Browne's Phonographic Monthly, published 

' D. L Scott-Browne, 737 Broadway, comes 
usual, well-filled with matter pertaining to 
phonography and phonographers. 

The Tufculum Tennessee Record, is an eight 
page paper well filled with interesting matter. 

Experiences in learning to Write. 


Experience is said to be a good teacher, and 
from a personal knowledge of the fact we are 
forced to believe that it is about as expensive 
I good. Our experience covers a period 
years, most of the time being spent in 
schools, consequently we know some- 
thing concerning penmanship in our common 
schools, and if this part of the country (Pcnn- 
.) is a specimen of the remainder, must 
admit that penmanship is making rapid pro- 
gress — in the wrong direction. 

We have bad the pleasure of being instruct- 
ed in the art by no less than fifteen of these 
teachers. Every teacher had a system (?) of 
his own, and the "methods of instruction" 
were of the most varied and original kind, 
Hinman could not begin to equal some of 
them, and as for variety we do not believe the 
"Convention" can boast of half the variety 
we had, but, " Variety is the spice of life," 
and we presume it ie equally true of penman- 

Practice was the remedy applied to all the 
disorders of penmanship, for practice, move- 
ment, position, pen-holding, etc, were passed 
over as unworthy of the leastattention, and as 
for material, every one had the grand privi- 
lege of selecting to suit their individual case. 
All of our spare money went to buy writing 
material to practice with, but the only persons 
benefited by this persistent practice was — the 
manufacturers. How long this stnte of affairs 
might have continued, had not kind provi- 
dence thrown a combination of self- instruction 
iu our path and thus shown us the error of our 
practice, we are not prepared I 
had made an important discovery, 
" Practice makes perfect," if you know how to 

Our next venture was to take a little flour- 
ishing at a normal school, in connection with 
the other studies, but we have learned since 
that we did not succeed very well, although at 
that time we intended to contribute a speci 
men of our beautiful (?) work to Prof. Ames 
Compendium. The reason we failed was 
because our teacher did not hold us in check 
on the principles, and herein is just where 
many fail. Master principles first, then 
more complicated forms. Like Robinson 
Crusoe we were bent on our own destruction 
for next we were captured by the " Great En- 
grossing Tramp" and put through a course of 
egg-shaped forms, straight and curved lines 
according to his peculiarly original mode of 
torture. Somehow his "torture" helped us 
along more than all of the other systems and 
methods combined. We also received some 
substantial aid in flourishing, aud was carried 
through a severe attack of the "deer" (he 
called it " buck " ) " fever," by the "Tramp." 
Those who have flourished their first deer will 
understand what the "fever" is. 

In conclusion we would advise those desir- 
ing to learn to go to a good teacher or none. 


1 the^ 

J. C. McClenahan annoimces his opening of 
the Capital City Business College, Columbus, 
Ohio. Mr. McOlenahan is assisted by M. B 

60 Barclay street. New York, Sept. 30, 1878. 
I hereby certify that I printed 10,000 cop- 
i of the Penman's Art Journal for the 
month of September. 

Hbn&t Nichols, 



Kingston, Pa., Sept. 17, 1878, 
Prof. D. T, Ames, New York : 

Dear Sib : — Enclosed please find check. 
$12.50. for which please enter our card in the 
Journal. Send me your Compendium (which 
we offer as a premium to the best of our wri- 
ting students), and enter five subscriptions 
for the journal, to begin with the September 
number. This list is only a beginning, and 
will be augmented from time to time. 

The worthy Secretary of the "Business 
College Teachers' and Penmen'sAssociation," 
Mr. Soule, has set an excellent example in 
sustaining the interests of the Journal as seen 
in his coinmunicalion in the September num- 
ber. It ought to be followed by every Busi- 
•ness College principal iind teacher of penman- 
ship in the country. There is no reason why 
we should not roll up the subscription hst of 
the Journal sufficiently to enable the manager 
to make if one of the very first educational 
publications, and especially to enable it to 
• "run and be glorified" in its own special field 
of usefulness, I cannot see how the Business 
College fraternity can afford to let a paper, so 
largely identified with their o\vu iutere.sts, so 
efficiently edited, and so eminently superior 
in typographical dress, suffer embarrassment 
from any lack of substantial support. 

Hoping at an early day to hear that thirty 
thousand names are upou its list, I remain 
yours very fraternally, 

D. li. Spbaqde. 


The Science of Doable Entry. 

Attentive be BDd I'U import 

debit .took w,.h 



rhe goods I buy 


goods I tak 

rbe debtor's plic 


tie plain 
y left hand, 

ook-keepiDg you 



Business Colleges, 


that has attendod Buflioesa 
Colleges in this country, wlien well conduct- 
ed, is evidence of their necessity. Until th« 
introduction of these schools into our system 
of education there was no provision made in 
any of tbe coUegea and schools of the coun- 
try to afford the youth special preparation 
in the affairs of business. So fully were the 
people alive to this fact, and bo great was 
the need of such a special training, that 
the success of these institutions was al- 
most marvelous from their inception. Per- 
haps in a few instances they hav- not been 
all that could be desired in an educational 
fienae, but age and eiperience are working 
most favorable improvements in widening 
their curriculum of studies and qualifying 
their staff of instructors. The community 
at large are unmistakably looking to these 
institutions for tbe solution of the question, 
"How can we teach our sons that which they 
will practice when they become men," in 
other words, how can they give them a prac- 
tical education? 

The report of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for 167(5, shows 137 of these institutiona 
now in operation, with 599 teachers and 
25,235 studputs. This is probably below the 
real number, as many schools are not report- 
ed. It shows, however, to what extent these 
schools meet a want in our system of educa- 
tion. But it is not only in the preparation 
of our youth for mercantile life that these 
ustitutions are doing good. They meet the 
wants of a large class whose early education 
has been neglected or limited, and who have 
leisure hours to devote to self-improvement. 
In large cities and manufacturing towns this 
class forms no small number. la these 
schools they can receive individual instruc- 
tion, and pursue such studies as their needs 
may require. If these schools received no 
other patronage they would still be a bless- 
ing and a necessity to the country. These 
young men have gone into business inade- 
quately prepared, and unfortunately their 
numbers are receiving large accessions year, 
ly; they see the necessity of more education . 
in fact, their business duties demand it, and 
were it not for the evening sessions of the 
Business College they would have to go with- 
out training and study, or incur a large ex- 
pense in employing a private preceptor. It 
is true that there are public evening schools, 
but these are totally inadequate in many 
ways, to impart the needed instruction. The 
young man is bashful, he has arrived at man- 
hood, he feels keenly his ignorance, he needs 
coaching, he needs individual instruction, 
his peculiarities and disposition require to be 
studied, and his wants and deficiences fully 
understood. It is to this class, as well as 
the younger members of society who have 
the time and means to prepare for business 
before entering it, that business colleges are 
a special boon. 

The Hon. Henry Kiddle, Superintendent 
of tho Public Schools of New York City, in 
a recent address before tbe students of Pack- 
ard's Business College, said; 

"I have a very high respect and a thorough 
appreciation of the objects and office of the 
business college. The fact which has already 
been refered to, that business colleges have 
increased so rapidly in this country ; that 
they have been so prosperous, aa compared 
with all other institution, shows tbat they 
really fill a want. The scope of a business 
college is vastly wider than would appear at 
first. It is not simply to train men for busi- 
ness pursuits. The instruction is, of coarse, 
special and technical, and has a particular 
aim ; but that aim is general it its usefull- 
UMB, and theio im ho man, what«T«r liphara 

of -life h« may choose, who would not bo 
benefited by the ksowledge be may gain in 
tnese institutions; and I oould wish very 
heartily indeed that higher institutions of 
learning, the colleges and the universities, 
always gave this training as one of the essen- 
tial requisites for a diploma." 

The convention of business college princi- 
pals and teachers, recently held in this city, 
shows that these men are alive to the interests 
and advancement cf their profession. The 
discussion of the various subjects pertaining 
to a buBsuess education, the methods and 
manner of presenting them in the school- 
room, and the interchange of thought con- 
cerning these stndies by and among the 
representative teachers of these colleges, 
must lead to admirale results. The thought 
that other institutions of learning do not 
look upon business colleges in a 
light, should not deter any faithful and 
earnest teacher in this noble work. Let 
such an idea be rather an incentive to any 
principal to so qualify himself, and to con- 
duct nis school in a manner that will com' 
mand the respect of all people of education- 
I have yet to learn that real merit in a busi- 
ness college is not duly appreciated. In my 
limitsd acquaintance among the business 
college principals, I know many whose per- 
sonal qualities are mucb admired, and whose 
schools occupy an enviable position among 
the educated and the educational institutions 
of this country. From the permanent organ- 
ization formed out of this convention 

Eare and Special Premiums. 

As an inducement of subscribers whose 
term of subscription to the Journal is 
about to expire, to renew tbe same and to 
compensate them for making 

thirty-eight times around the faaces, having 
inacribed the names of the present thirty- 
eight States of the Union. 

Around all these, in a beautiful tioral and 
ruBtio border, are openings in which are 
twenty-two pictures, representing leading 
historical events, and ilhiatratiug by con 
trusts tbe creat changes and improvements 
that biive taken place iu our country 
during the post hundred yi'ars. 

The entire work has the appennince of a 
tine steel engraving, and constitutes one 
of the most interesting and attractive 
hfstorical pictures ever published in this 

The following are a few of the many 
comments from thepressand eminent men; 

■country during the 

te tbi 

others to subscribe, we offer the fol- 
ng special premiums : 

For each old subscriber who will remit 
$1,25 we will renew bis subscription lor 
one year and mail a copy of the Ceutenuml 
Pictureof Progress, 23x30 inches with key, 
(retails for $1); for each renewal, and one 
additional subscriber, remitting $2, we will 
mail the same premium free. 

For one renewal and two additional 
subscribers, with $3, we will mail tbe Cen- 
tennial Picture 28x40 inches (retails for S2), 

Our new premium, 'The Lord's Prayer,' 
will also be mailed tree to each new sub- 
scriber. For information concerning our 
general premium list, see Ist col., 4tb page. 

To enable persons who have not seen 
the premiums mentioned above, to judge 
somewhat regarding their interest and 
value, we give below a brief description, 
with a few of the multitude of flutteriug 
notices received from the press and emi- 

The original Picture of Progress, which 
is now in the office of the Abt Joubnal, is 
36x62 inches, and was executed entirely 
with a pen. requiring about one year of 
close labor. Although its design and exe- 
cution were prompted by the desire to ex- 
hibit at the Centennial, its design and char- 
acter are equally appropriate to any time. 

It is surmounted by the United States 
coat of arms, and as a title, iu large, beau- 
tiful, bold letters, the word Centennial, 
having for a groundwork the main Cen- 
tennial building in perspective. Directly 
under this are two pictorial scenes repre- 
senting the discovery of America by Col- 
umbus, in 1492, and the landing of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in 1620. Under 
these are two large landscape pictures,one, 
1776, presents the country as it was then, 
a vast interminable wilderness, with small 
settlements here and there, representing 
tbe pioner colonist, clearing away the 
foreste, building log houses, tigtting tbe 
savages, &o. The other, 1876, representa 
same landscape changed by the lapse of 
hundred years, from a wilderness to a 
populous empire, with numerous large 
cities and towns, vast commerce, internal 
mprovements, agriculture, public institu- 
tions, manufactures, &c., &c. Surmount- 
ing these landscapes is a scroll in which are 
inacribed the almost prophetic words ut- 
tered by Bishop Berkeley in 1728, "Westr 
ward tbe course of empire takes its way." 

At the left of these landscapes is a 
portrait of Washingtou, around which in a 
large oval is written the Declaration of 
Independence, which is inclosed in a 
bundle of fasces with a scroll entwining 
thirteen times around them, upon which 
are inscribed tbe names of the original 
thirteen States of the Union. Opposite, 
to the right, is the same design, having the 
portrait of Lincoln, tbe Emancipation 
Proclamution> while the soroli entwines 

3rooklyn Daily Unio 


labip publlostloba ; 

'. Spme«r. Wathingttm, I 

anship,— Pr<ir. 0. C. Slockwetl, JVei 
-Pr<^ C. C. Cattia, Mintua'polia, , 

Slut$etjnan,Quiiu;y, III.' 

Sandy, Troy 

> hlud yet 

I thiug.—Prqf. D. L. 

*n work, the ne plu* 
-F. U. WaUrt, Oor- 

-iViy^. T.^R^SoiUh^ 
L. Aairt,Jied Wing, 

ially a great production. - 
C. Kerr, late Speaker uf h 
rtlBt has most hnpplty ) 

r. Weekly. 

•■ of Jiejireaenta- 


^.—Newarh (N- J.) 1 

Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Ornamental Peuman- 
ship is designed especially for the use of 
professional penmen and artists. It gives 
an unusual number of alphabets, a well 
graded series of practical exercises, and 
specimens for off-hand flourishing, and a 
great number of specimen sheets of en- 
grossed title pages, resolutions, certifi- 
cates, memorials, &c. It is the most com- 
prehensive, practical, useful, and popular 
work to all classes of professional penmen 
ever pubhehed. Sent, post-paid, to any 
address on receipt of 85 00; or for a pre- 
mium for a club of 12 subscribers to 
the Journal. 

The following are a few of tlie many 
flattering notices from the press and 

without ii.—pTO/, 

A Beautifiil and Valuable Premium. 

Until further notice we will mail to each 
new subscriber, aud others renewing their 
subscription with the first copy ot the 
JODRNAL, a copy of The Lord's Prayer, 19 x 
24. This IS a/ac-simile copy of oue of the 
most artistic, beautiful, and perfect works 
that we have ever execiiied with the pen ; 
beside displaying the text of the Prayer in 
highly oruate and periect lettering, there 
are represented ten of the most imi)ortant 
scenes in tbe life of Christ, together with 
the ten commandments. The original pen 
aud ink copy of this picture was executed 
by us on an order from tbe publisher, Mr. 
G. M. Allen, for which he paid us five hun- 
dred dollars iu cash. Copies tho same size 
dquality, as we now ufler free as a pre- 
um to every new subscriber and renew- 
al, he sold through agents for oue dollar. 
""' ' premmm alone is well worth the 
entire cost of a year's subscription to the 
Want of space forbids a more ex- 
tended description at present. 

Mayhew finsiness CoUe^^e. 

Deteoit, Mich, Sept, 7th, 1878. 
Deab Sir :— Herewith please find one dol- 
lar ($1) for the Penman's Art Journal for one 
year beginning with the issue for September. 
I have been more and more interested in the 
successive issues of your jourual from the 
first number. It seems to me to be filling an 
important mission. I trust it will hereafter 
not only aid penmanship as an Art, but that 
applied penmanship, as a commercial branch, 
shah by its influence materially promote the 
whose great 

Truly yours, 

Iba Maxhbw, 
Prof. D. S. Ames, 
206 Broadway, New York. 

Parents who desire to awaken an interest 

writing on tho part of their children, and 

teachers who wish to continue, to sustain 

tbe interest awakened by them iu their 

nly them them to 

The first duty on T— Don't forget t 


aos firokdwKy, Mew Vork 

Fiil>lisliecl ]>Ioi«thly. at SOS Ifi*on<i-\va;>-, 

81.00 per Yeai-. 


VOL. II. NO. 8. 


erikl AgeII^ Spenceriaa Copy 



U. T. AitlES, 

205 Broadway, New York, 



849 and 551 Broadway New York. 


Late Oady, WiUbod & Walwort 'b, 


' PEIRCE, M. A., Principal. 
S Soutb TeDtti Street, PhiiaiT bla. 


ank cards ov every DESO iIPTION, 

l^s iviantj.\i.^of sooeal and 


AiitboT of Spcnc«riau PenmaiialUi), 

Mr. Spencer was a trifle above medium 
size, compactly built, firm and heavy in tbe 
shoulders ; his frame was close aud well put 
up; his muBclea well developed and of ex- 
cellent quality ; he was never fleshy, never 
loan. PosBeesed by organizatinu of a flue 
development of heart, lungs, and all other 
parte that give vital ability, endurance and 
force, he was in all things well balanced, and 
thus favored with what we call a vigorous and 
sound constitution- one that could bear either 
labor or hardship for a long period of time. 
His temperament was bilious, sanguine and 
nervous, the nervous in the asceuduut, but so 
tempered by organization that there was no 
haste, no flash, no incoherency either in 
passion, thought, labor or action. Always 
self-possessed, always deliberate, always mas- 
ter of himself, he could hence not only turn 
every power to the best account, but by hia 
weli- poised temperance ja all things control 
others, and beget in them that inspiration 
properly modified by serenity of mind aud 
manner so marked in all of his bearing and 
conduct from day to day. 

Mr. Spencer's brain was very large, fore- 
head very high and full, the practical aud 
logical faculties being in about equal force ; 
the front anterior brain was very high and 
full, towering and well rounded up, few heads 
bt-'iny hifiber in this region. Imitation and 
D(ri4inlencc were very large; while upon 
the anterior sides the full and fine develop- 
ment, nowhere dpficient, showed ttute, ide- 
ality, wit, music, and most especially inven- 
tion, potent and ruling forces in the always 
working and busy mind. His moral facul- 
ties were also in no respect inferior to the 
intellectual. There might be but little flash, 
bluster and enthusiasm in hie religion, 

but rather a composed andexalt- 
ed manliness about it which al- 
ways gave a high moral tone to 
his whole bearing with men 
and a silent but deep impression 
of piety aud devotion in his 
daily communion with his maker 
and hia God. His social nature 
was in nothing wanting. A true 
warm and steadfast friend a 
most excellent neighbor, a good 
citizen, a devoted aud lovmg 
husband, and a father (we might 
say if such a thing is possible) 
without a fault, 

Mr. Spencer might have been 
a lawyer, a minister, a doctor or 
a farmer, but his taste, hia pas 
sion, bis aptitude was not in thiii 
direction. He assuredly hud 
abundant talent for aut}u>rship 
He was by nature a poet, want- 
ing neither feeling, emotir n 
imagination or invention, but he 
was as much perhaps as iPuy 
man ever is, born an artist, to form and di 
velop the beaiitiful, ?iot in ookia but in bhape 
He had the genius for sculpture Accident 
drew bis mind in the direction of one branch 
of art which happily had to do with tbe every 
day necessities of the world, rie 
aud grasped the subject of Penmanship; he 
foimd it wilh a certain status, and in develop- 
ment fitutionary ; he said to himself intuitively. 
I will not only moke this art more beautiful, 
liiit uinri- practical, better ; I will re-create 
Eughtih I'liirography. It shall be more beauti- 
ful than any other, aud still it shall be just af 
practical as any other in the world. 

Mr. Spencer did not r.reatt XeiiexB ; he did 
not originate Euglish Penmanship, but after 
observation, reflection, aud practically trying 
almost all imaginary forms, he begi 
classify, group, harmonize and sy 
The result as early as 1838 was, "Speni 
Business and Ladies Writing," aud I will say 
Spencer's "Coarse Hand." 

In 181(8, I saw him write, and became 
possessed of a full illustration of his work. 
There was not behind it any other like it iu 
the world. His "Coarne JTnnd" was as much 

s the r 

His mode of {e/z<:/jf'n^ was also, as a method, 
iw. I will here say that, like his writing, 
was not only strongly impressed with 
originality, but I have never seen another 
or woman who could fairly reproduce 
r his teacUing or writing, but thousands 
approach him in ench. Each also loses and 
supplies something himself. But who excels 
rjiasses? It is to me immaterial who ; 
I glory in every man's success. We all know 
in teaching there are many methods, in- 
strumentalities, &c., &c. Mr. Spencer used 
of which he was not, and did not claim 
to be, author Others are since introduced, 
also good. Different teachers use different 
3thods in part new and original. 
As a teacher, conaidfring the man, the 
mner, tbe model, the illusti-ation, the mode 
full, by which I mean his method iudivid- 
uabzed ; I believed him to be one of the best, 
yes, I wiU say the beat teacher in the world, and 
more follow him to-day as a model or author, 
than all other teachers of the Ai't put together, 
Still I know hosts of men and women who 
are excellent in this line, of whose ability 
any man might be proud. 

There weie but few as steady workers as 
Mr Spencir Hie whole corapositiou drew 
not only all proht fioui labor but his h ippi 

, " 1 ■■ creative and polishing power could not 
b,;: left idle ; he lived in progress, hence he 
could not be expected to be satisfied to merely 
imitate, reproduce. This specialty furnished 
a field for the bent of his geuius. 

As a rule, Mr, Spencer improved what 
touched. It was, therefore for him, fortunate 
that he found au Art iit hand ready for a nev 
modeling — another juHt like him to-day, thii 
Art could notgiiv a buiincs.-. Still the Art ii 
not exhausted. I have heard writers eay they 
had exhausted the resources of their Ai-t I 
You might as well attempt to exhaust the 
creative power of Ciod, No, there are other 
and new departures in this and every Ar 
There is in practical writing the spiritual and 
the Bcieutific. The spiritual is exhaustless. 

Mr. Spencer's letters are pictures ; and the 
whole grouping a succession of pictures. I 
would therefore advise all pupils of Mr. Spen- 
cer to study, moat of all, the spirit of his 
work. I am not aware that Mr. Spencer ever 
claimed to have developed urnameutal pen- 
manship as a whole. To his work, however, 
there was a style his own. This was true of 
Tracey, Williams, Cowley and a host of 
others. Many are, however, merely imitu- 

It is not my province here to discuss styles 
of ornamental Penmanship. I will say of the 
styles of the artists, the style of each has its 
excellence. I would also say this of Mr. 
Spencer's. But his passion was not in this 
direction. He found piacticol writing tlefee- 
; he corrected and revolutionized that- 
This work, together with his continual pro- 
fessional labor, absorbed all energies until his 

I will here speak of his liberality. I might 
almost say there was no end to his liberaUty 

i art. This was true of him from first to 
last. Of course to supply the demand of his 
generosity required incessant and ever iu- 
■easing labor. Mr. Spencer's peculiar method 
of teaching received its direction from the 
peculiar nature of the man. His first object 

o attach his pupils to both his art and 
himself. His whoi.. manner was persuasive, 
attractive, genial, /rienu>^. 

There was a silent, sub 
flueuce surrounding him always that won the 
pupil's love, sympathy, friendship. Theu hia 
i,reiit hope and faith m labor was infectious. 
Hib gijud bcript thrown hberaUy about very 
soon lUbpued on all sides euthusiasm. I do 
not say that other men do not successfully 
employ these agencies — no, I only say that 
Mr bpcncer used them m a greater degree. 
Ihere was no method of introducing, ifluntro- 
tin^ or carryiUj, tbtough a lesson or a course 
ot lessons of which I evtr heard, and there 
was no style of writmg with which I ever 
became acquainted that hi did not underetand. 
This IS no disparagement to others. There is 
many a man invents what other men will im* 
prove in use Lach may claim credit for hia 
own particular excellencies. 

If we coubider the temper, quality and 
bent of Mi Spenoei s mind at 20, 22, 23, 
24 25, and if vie rightly comprehend the in- 
terpietation of these we shoiUd see that first 
he ould not remain a copyist. Invention was 
tt lulmg faculty with him. Second, The 
systems and methods of his time or those 
befoie published could not be acceptable 
to his fe,Lmu6 We are told that he was 
u tompilei aud uo more. He was not a 
compder He LuticaUj looked through pen- 
manship as he foimd it, and his mind or taote 
gave '^ its fiftnwi He produced 
from the beginning the germs of his own sys- 
tem. This was true of every part of what be- 
came his penmanship. This through, ex- 
periment, trial aud practice aud invention 
went steadily on to about 1838 and the work 
was complete. He did often counsel with 
otiier penmen, and study the books, but not 
to copy or -borrow, but to fortify a choice 
from his own work. There was in his own 
script coinpkte, fl standard in tnith, of every 
letter large or small. These, to make, to 
group, and put together, took time and study. 
When he was done, his caiiitals were a finished 
work and the body of the writing just as much 
so. Until he produced these capitals, they did 
not exist, aud no odds by how many copied, 
published, or claimed, they a/re and must ba 
his foreoer. 

It is just as true of his writing, it is a unity 
as much as the mind was his that con- 
ceived first. Now, how should it be explain- 
ed and taught. He tried a variety of meth- 
ods; some wholly new, some mixed. He 
settled upon a standard method. It was 
mainly new, aud was his ; what was borrowed 
was but a drop in the bucket. / never doubt- 
ed that his method was just as perfect as hia 
writing. But other men might diverge from 
lethod wisely, and I do not doubt that 
these departures under the circumstances, are 
good, and for these the country is under ob- 
ligations to them, but still I say his method 
for him was the hest for Mm, and as a Nation- 
al standard the best that was possible, in my 

I cannot speak for others, but for myaelf I 
luld hold this authorship as sacred, and 
guard it as I would his grave- Spencer knew 
the value of his work ; he knew that it cost 
forty years of his life, of toil, study 
and pL*rsisteut sacrifice. It was hound to be 
National. Beauty like truth can never die. 
If God Almighty determined that Mr. Piatt 
R. Spencer should produce the fuindwriting 
of a nation, I am not the man to attempt to 
strike down the decree of Fate. 
No.' rather to the immortality of lettera 


ftud his art, aud its graud thought which can 
never dks I would add the voir^ and the 
imraorl«Iity of mnrhlf. I would gladly add 
my hniiihle iiiito on find to the last, to hold 
his precious legacy to us the people up to 
them for Bcoeptanoe, and feel that I was, 
while helping them, ordy doing ju^liCf to the 
miglity dfad. 

Still, I do not forget the rights of the 
staunch supporters of grniii* — Lusk, Rioe, 
Warren Spencer, R. 0. Spencer, Folsom, G. 
ff . Eiwtraau aud hosts of others ; these men all 
of whom nould shine iu any galaxy without 
borrowed light, both frionde of Mr. Spencer 
and the pubhc ; by serving him served them ; 
men nil of original merit, and extraordinary 
ekill and energy. They not only did their 
friend and author justice, but were each, af- 
ter his own manner, benefactors of the na- 
tion. Mr. Spencer felt bis obligations to his 
friends, but when, after all, we oousider that 
nil of tliis was not for him, or them, but then- 
country, for loaruing, for art and for time, it 

home, to us nllftn'ever. 

But however much I might admire the 
grand creations of Mr. Spencer's genius, and 
the cunning skill of his hand it was not tliis 
or these thatdrtw me most to him. It icm, 
that manhood wos in him glorified. It was 
the symmetry aud fullness of all pai-ts of his 
cbaratrtcr: wautiug nothing intellectually, 
inornlly, and physically. I know there was 
no labor of his life which was not done skill- 
fully! — well; 

But I loved more, that, which was Spencer 
rtimself. Auobh- man!— nat hymen's or- 
dination, but by God Uimsolf. It was, there- 
fore, with the deepest sorrow that I saw the 
incomparable purhicr of his being, his life 
and hi.s toil, tflken away from him just as great 
liibor. yfurn, and the cares aud I'esponsibili- 
tics of life began to grow heavy upon him. 
I knew how much he Ipved, how mtich he 
was bound up iu this woman ; what she was 
to him in all toil, sympathy, everything — 
Why should slit- be taken away ? 

He finished his work alone, but under a 
cloud. The day had lost its sun, the night 
its moon, aud the year the sum of nearly all 

He now rest^. from his labor. That pecn- 
I liur creative work sot apart for him was £rn- 
— islitdr- "While the English language shall be 
written, while this Empire of the West shall 
furnish heads to dictati; and hands to write, 
fun forms -wiW he Earned and used; not as 
the oreations of other men, Irut Jiis. For 
history will watch over Aw I't'ffht in fame, as 
one of her favored children. 

Iu as much lus it was to be my fortune that 
Ml-. Speucer through twenty ycai'fe should be 
my fri<-nd ; mine a kindred pursuit to his, 
and many ipiahlies not e'weutially convei-ta- 
bla iu a common pursuit, a commcm posses- 
sion of both, why slioulJ I not furnish this 
tribute, partial, feeble and imi)erfeet though 
it bo, iu memory of the services and exeel- 
lenciMS of my preceptor and friend. 

Holding. Ihortforo, what Mr. Spencer crea- 
ted 08 iu aiithorfthip stusr/idly hia, and not le$it 
auorrd his memory and his fame. These 1 
hand over to our comnwn country, in her 
han(L> let them remoiu forever. 

KiugsviUu, .fuly 17, 1H7«. 

My First Experience- 

My first atlL-mpt t 

tt-ach ft writiug school 

occunvdii. til, f.dt 

■ r \Mr>, in a uorthera 

tOWU in N' ■. n.i'M|. 

lin. At that time steel 

pOU« V\' ' r,.-' |., ._■ 

' il nsi-, and quills were 

f«niiiiM i I : |. .|,,K i,M- thcmaster to cut 
nud mill. (FiiM 11. II- 1 !i,ry also . furnished 
the paper aud mk. Tho paper would consist 
of all kinds and sizes and the ink would be of 
Mveral blmdcs and colors. Altogether there 
WM variiity at least. Copy books with eu- 
gmvod copies were not known, and cbildreu 
d.-pendod upon their school teachers for the 
UCiwssary copies and instruction. 

Finding it necessary to do something for a 
living, aud being Considered a pretty good 
penman for a bny of eighteen. I executed a 
few ^'»pemmifttf<' im foolscap paper, consist- 
ing of a few flourished capitals, an eagle of 
the old style, a swan and a pon. and a few 
lines of plain writing as a heading for the 
Hubscription li.«t for a school. With these I 
began to look aboul for victims, aud in the 
course of tt few days I secured the names of 

nine boys on the paper. They were taken in 
with the enisle and the " goose." I got per- 
mission to use thfc school house free of charge. 
I kept the boys good natured and they kept 
me busy making and mending their goose 
quiU pens. 

During the twelve lessons, I learned as 
much as they did, not only iu writing, but 
how to impart what I did know to them. 
This experience was worth a great deal to me 

Having the notion that they needed a 
writiug master more in Vermont, than they 
did in New Hampshire, I prepared for a win- 
ter campaign. I laid myself out on some 
new specimens, put them iu a portfolio, 
placed my extra wearing aparrel in a carpet 
bag aud struck out for a large towu on the 
river, I was a tramp. I had only a few dol- 
lars in money, but plenty of eoufidence, in 
fact, too much, I walked eightcin miles that 
day, only to be disiLpiiniul.-il tlir next. I 
lodged at the hot.! ihut ni^^li' ■lii^l iu the 
morning fouud anolb^i- wriiin;^ inHster can- 
vassing the town for :t sclioni, lii- was one 
day ahead of mn. I then determined to strike 
iuto the interior, aud by dark had crossed 
the Green Mouutaius. I stayed over night in 
a small village, my funds begau to look rather 
small aud the town I was aiming for was ten 
miles awaj'. It had rained during the night 
aud the road was muddy ; yet I knew I must 
succeed somewhere, aiid I traveled ou, now 
and then getting a ride with a farmer for a 
mile or two. "Distance lends enchantment 
to the view." I begau to see that the larger 
the town the less the prospect for success, to 
one with so little experieuce as myself. 

I slept that night in a store, with the clerk 
whom I happened to be aequaiuted with. He 
kintlly invited me to help myself to cnickers 
and cheese which I gratefully accepted. 
When I began to talk about a writing school, 
I found there had been a teacher ahead of 
me, and that I must travel on. With all my 
economy, funds were getting lower. I 
began to live on crackers aud cheese aud eat 
them as I weut aloug, as time was money in 
my case. 

I arnvfd at another towu aud made the 
usual inquiries with the usual succonb; some 
one had beeu there only a short time befoeg. 

Now r began to gi-ow' desperate as my 
money was nearly gone. I heard of a small 
town about five miles distant and pressed on. 
Just as I walked up to the only "tavern " in 
the plaea. the boarders were sitting down to 
supper. I had walked over fifty miles, had 
eaten but one square meal in two days; was 
among entire strangers and had ouly a silver 
niuepeuce iu my pocket. I assumed a cheer- 
ful appearance, but it took good acting, aud 
inquired the price of board and lodging. It 
appeared reasonable as I was very huugi*y. I 
took my scat at the table and did ample jus- 
tice to the whdlesome fare. After supper I 
felt better and determined to succeed iu get- 
ting a class in that village as I could go no 

I made my business kuowu, exhibited 
specimens, aud received some encouragement, 
in words at least. The uext moraiug I star- 
ted out iu company with a youug lad to show 
me the houses where there were young peo- 
pk- living aud most likely to attend a writing 
sehool. By persistent and de.'iperale efforts 
I got the names of about the same number of 
boys I had in my class, and by commenc 
iug at once, I finished the course of lessons 
iu a little over two weeks, The receipts from 
thisclass just covered expenses. During all 
this time I kept the ninepeuce, and did uot 
let any one know I was so short of money. 
Not having much to do during the day except 
writiug the copies and mending the pens, I 
visited aud prospected the adjoining towns 
for my next venture. On one of these 
excursions, while returning ou a lonely 
road near night, I was caught and nearly 
perished in a fearfid snow-storm. Pluck 
geuorally wins, and by the time I had 
finished this class, I had another engaged in 
a town about five miles distant. It was com- 
posed of a large number of boys and girls, 
aud yo\ing ladies and gentlemen. 

By this time the Vermont winter bid nil in 
with deep snows aud blustering weather; but 
that did nut prevent them from coming, It 
was their season for fun. and well tlipy knew 
how to use it. The well-to-do farmers' sons and 
rosy cheek daughters, within two ortbree miles 

of the village, would come in with their two- 
horse pungs well filled with a jolly crowd that 
would uot mind the weather. 

When the term closed I had given such 
good satisfaction that another class, larger 
than the first, was secured, aud conducted 
with"the same success. AU this time I was 
improving my own writing aud gaining valua- 
ble experieuce iu teaching. 

Having a natural talent for discipline, the 
largest schools gave me no trouble, although 
sometimes containing i^ischievous elements, 
the girls beiug the worst for a youTig man to 
manage. I fouud a few more classes during 
the winter, and when the snow was gone aud 
spring came, I look up ray carppt-bag and 
portfolio, aud re-crossed the mouulains ou 
foot, making fifty miles in two days. During 
those winter months I spent in the State, I 
enjoyed nearly all the pleasures that are usual 
for that time of the year, — the hospitalities 
of the farmci-, his sons and fair daughtera, 
donation parties at the minister's, apple pair- 
ings, sleigh rides aud balls. 

I wish to testify, even after so many years 
have elapsed, to their geuerous hospitality, 
their general intelligence and proverbial in- 
tegrity. Happy may they ever be among the 
lofty hills and beautiful valleys of Vermont. 
I doubt that any teacher of penmanship of 
the present day iu that State would find the 
opportuuities to eujoy himself as I did then, 
one third of a century ago. 

The Practice of Criticism. 

To a young m 

n just entering upon the 

real aud liut-il.lH 

lutiis of his life's work, no Is iiMir.- 11^. 

111. when formed, than the 

/>'■'"■''■'■' '■/■ '-'•''''- 

w// There are so many 

grit-'vniiN iiiLp-Tffi 

tioiis, aud even falsehoods. 

iu that which a 

too generous charity pro- 


so many morally and iutel- 

lectually unsyini 

lotrieal ebaracters ou the 

pages of lif.-, [li.ii 

ii - ■ - tbongh all se- 

verity had m. ■■ ' 

' ill' smoke of our 

Puritan fati,. > , 

; -, and that the 

golden age uf 1 1 ■ - 

l"UL >'.<.■[ luJ'.'fd come, bear 

iug with it a mirage and a charm which causes 

all things to take upon them the beauty and 
purity of a vision iu the dewert. Amid all this 
allurement to carelessness, before these beau- 
tiful beckoning fingers towardlandsof joy aud 
ease, is it any wonder that a young man is 
grievously tempted to forego the rigore of 
self-examination, and leave the estimation of 
his chai-acter and work to a smiling and leui- 
eut world ? Aud yet, what vital fact is more 
evident thau this. No human charity can 
atoue for the lack in a man. nor insure for 
him a fame and a memory such as, in his fond 
delusion, he imagiues he shall gaiu without 
toil or care ? The world may tolerate shift- 

lessuess, yea, even smile upo: 

it, but i 

place in lif., h _■ n luiag praise of 

awopld whiLb ti.K.. iioL i.t>u.iiiiiu, aud serious, 
ly set ourselvBB to discover wherein we lack. 
Not that I would decry true merit aud its true 
recognition and praise. Let us be thankfid 
that there is yet a full and clear distinction 
between deserved aud undeserved commenda- 
tion ; yet our vanity ofteu leads us to shut our 
eyes to this which we know so well, aud to 
accept for true praise what we are very well 

s false and u 


Self-criticism is the first duty of a ma 
youug or old. We never pass our pupilage 
the school. That it is a hard duty, 
deny ; that it is a necessary duty, all will ad- 
mit. Self.eritioism implies : First -A careful 
examination of our motives and purposes, 
Second — A rigid 




purposes is a highei 
attempt to bring 

science thau most of us 
) practical use. We all 
pore over our tests aud text -books ou this sub- 
ject, but very few of us are ready to meet the 
question of our htem teacher, conscience. 
And yet. if we could only bear in mind that 
there is no hope of gi'aduatiou from the 
school of discipline iuto the fair future of suc- 
cess until we have mastered this hardest of 
lessons, I think we would neglect it less. You 
never knew a great man who was uot consci- 
entious, though I graut there have been some 
great ruHcala who wore not. Self-respect nnist 
go hand in hand with the respect of other 

men, otherwise notoriety will be your highest 
round in the ladder of success. 

A rigid scanning of one's work is a duty sec- 
ondary to examination of one's motives Only 
in order. It follows naturally and unavoid- 
ably from the former, and is, in fact, its vis- 
ible and outward expression. A conscientious 
man is almost invariably a good ortizan aud a 
good artist. But the object of careful atten- 
tion to one's mauuer and kind of work is two- 
fold — as the highest mental culture, aud as 
the best aud surest means for improving the 
quality of that work. The fii-st consideration 
leads us back to the subject of motive and pur- 
pose : the second brings us to the real and 
practical theme of tliis essay. 

Self-criticism as a means of professional 
improvement is a nubject ou which volumes 
would be trivial. All the importance and ue- 
ccssity of the duty could never be written or 
said. Every life presents a thounand instan- 
ces of it, either as the hand-maiden of 
spleudid success, or, when neglected, the som- 
bre companion of eternal failure. Innumei-- 
able are the phases, the lights and shadows, 
sun-oundings aud distances, of this living 
picture. No camera could contain them all, 
no eye driuk in the variety of their forms. A 
few suggestions, however, might serve to di- 
rect your thoughts to this unbounded theme, 
aud iu so doing lead you to discover manype. 
cuhar and beautiful relations, which can 
never be less divine than personal ! 

Criticism of out's own work tits one for ap- 
plication of one's own resources. In no other 
way is It possible for the mind and heart and 
soul to see clearly each others depths. Self- 
criticism develop.5 a logical faculty iu the 


refute their accusei-s ; aud before the matter is 
satisfactorily settled, one will have parsed 
through a regimen of iutellectual trial which 
will probably have laid opeu facts and re- 
sources of thought and imagination hitherto 
uukuowu. Self-criticism is ofteu wholesome 
self, punishment. Shame, disappointment, 
and regret are often vahiable lessons in the 
great school of life. A chapter once learned 
with tears, though blurred aud dim be the 
page where our sorrow fell, will never be 
washed from the mind. There are elements 
of discipUne iu self-criticism whose bitteruehs 
is ohly equalled by their iiuighty influence as 
life inspiring elixirs. 

Finally, self-criticism capacitates one for 
the criticism of others ; aud upon this thought 
I would I'ouud out my subject with a few 

The criticism of others should never be at- 
tempted until one's conscience endorses the 
justice and value of our own criticisms upon 
ourselves. An artist ought never to put a pic- 
ture upon the market which he is ashamed to 
see hanging in his own slxidio. For bow can 
amateur, thoughtless criticism be other thau 
selfish aud unjust I 

Again, one ought never to criticise his 
brother j/hUm thnj havr Homrthhiii in ••oiiimnn. 
some bond of sympathy by which they may 
uuderstaudeach other. If your methods are 
altogether different from your fellow-artists," 
you have no right to criticise tlieir production. 
Adopt this rule : Be as honest aud fair and 
eareful with others, as you would b<^ with 

How to Achieve Success. 

Young men should awake to the grand 
possiilities of achieving competency, wealth, 
success! The world is Mf/rj*. '—as much of 
it, at least, as they can conquer ! Direct 
effort, a little time, a small outlay, aud the 
gi'eatest hairier is surmounted I Faith, effort 
and time arc at command, but what is the 
oatlityf It is tuition, simply with which to 
buy Salable qualifications; for it is an axiom, 
that if we would buy, we must have something 
to sell. This is too ofteu overlooked by youug 
men. They forget that practical qualification 
is a product as merchantable as flour, cotton, 
or cloth 1 An outlay, indeed, of one hundred 
dollars tuition, for a complete business edu- 
cation at Folsom's Business College, yields 
bountiful returns, in salaries from $,iOO to 
$!l..'".00 the lirfit year, as hundreds of graduates 
will testify. Youug men, the dark age of 
business paralysis is soon to pass away, to be 
succeeded by halcyon days of financial pros- 
perity, in which you may, witli proper busi- 
ness qualifications, finally achieve certain 
succeBs.- .fi. G. Folsom. 


Ode to Writing. 

Pres&ntation to P. R. Speocer. on His 
Sixty second Birthday. 

Quite a pleasant affuir cnme off at the Log 
Writing Seminary of our beloved friend and 
follow- citizen P. R. Spknceb, in Geneva, on 
the occasion of the Sixty-Becood birthday (1861 ) 
of its proprietor, the author of the Sjieru^n-ian 
Sjf.tUm of WritUig—d. system more current 
than any other in our <:ouutrv, nud its merits 
apprt-L-iutid col-vuI with tin- Anglo Saxou race 
imd luiignuge. His celebrity as u preceptor, 
it si-i'ms has drawn around him a class, fitting 
for tt!Achers, hailing from six different States 
and from Canada. This class, unknown to 
Mr. Spencer, had at a previous meeting, pre- 
pared for the presentation by appointment of 
a committee of eight, to wit. 8. D. Clark, of 
la.; W. 0. Hooker, ofN. Y.; C. F. Thayer, of 
Va.; Pr. Granger, Mich.; Miss M, E, Brown, 
O.; Miss jr. Wheeler, Ky.; and S. Annabel, 
0. K.; to arrange material, and prepareasnit- 
ftbh- addriiss, electing E. C. Adams, of la.; 
cbiiinniin of the niuetiug, in abeyance. 

On Friday, at H p. m. the chairman an- 
ooiiutid the design and dtsire of the class 
and Mr. Spencer vacated the school for their 
uutrammeled action, whereupon S. D. Clark 
addressed Mr. Spencer as foilows : 
ItiJtpfcted andEittntJiied TiacJitr : 

It has been truly said that those alone are 
really great who have labored successfully for 
the benefit of their fellow men, and have left 
tbe world the better for their having bved. 
Forfmost nnioug these stand the inventorB of 
writing and priutiug, and those who bavo as- 
sisted iiirgoly in bringing these noblest of arts 
to their present high state of perfection. To 
them the poet, tht: philosopher, the historian, 
owe their immortality. And who can por- 
tray tiie changed condition of the human 
race were the vast results of these sister in- 
ventions to-day blotted out of existence. 

Tbis wdv a btautifnl thought of the au- 
1.11-iitv, iiui.l -..^ni-.iy less true than beautiful. 
Hint nu ;ii-i -^n limili);,; as Writing, oue destined 
!■■ Ii .ul iii.iuk!;i.l from the midnight darkness 
(jf biiibfiriBui, into the bright noonday of 
civiUzation which now floods the world with 
a blaze of glory, could be the work of Deity 
alone, and instead of a discovery- of l 
was taught him from a higher sphere. 

History gives us a few iusttiuces in which 
those who have labored for the good of their 
race liave been duly aiijjreciated in their o 
day, and have lived to reap the rewards 
their efforts in the blessings of their fellow 
men ; Soomtes, for his lessons of wisdom 
proffered the poison cup ; Columbus, 
giving a new continent to the world, received 
the tribute of poverty audchains; and Milton, 
the illustrious author of these unequidled 
works, had to seek in after yeure the homage 
due to his almost God-like genius. But, 
Hviug in a more enlightened age, you are 
happUy spared to see your system, the result 
of years of careful study and experiment 
guided by a rare artistic taste, not only the 
acknowledged standard in this country, and 
bidding fair within your lifetime to become 
the only system taught here, but also being 
adopted in foreign countries wherever the 
English language is si)oken or taught 

Few men can look back upon a life's labor 

What is said of the Journal. 

J. C. Brown, Randolph. N. Y.: "It 
most escelleut publication." 

W. A, Chess, Brownsville, Mich, 
better and better. What next? " 

G. R. Kathburn, Omaha, Neb.: " Your pa- 
per in appreciated wherever it is read."' 

E. L. Bojrgs, Charleston, W. Va.: "Iwould 
not do without it for ten times its cost." 

J. H, Brown. Columbia, HI.: "No penman 
who knows itii value will be without it." 

Mr. E. Blackman, Worcester, Mass.: "If 
it cost double the money I would subscribe." 

J. Q. Overman, Pee Pee. Ohio : " It is 
worth more to me than any other paper I ever 

0. Bailies, principal Commercial CoUegi 
Dubuque, Iowa: "lam delighted with your 
JoDRNAL. Long may it live and prosper." 

G. T. Oplinger, Slatington, Pa.: "Tht 
Journal is very interesting. Just what w( 
have long needed. '" 

J. B. Cundiff, New Orleans, La.: "My ad 
Duration and delight augments with each s 

■ded by the press, j.vofessioual penmen, and 
comprehensive, practical, and artistic guide to ornamental pen- 
manship ever pubbshcd. Sent, post paid, to any address on receipt of $5.00, or as a pre- 
1 for a club of twelve subscribers to the Joubnal. 

;:<... m^iTitllUght, 

} thy woudroUB migLI, 

Dudyiug glary tbrillM t 

'ood I, 


Mr. Spencer responded appropriately to 
the action of his esteemed students, and thus 
much of "a feast of reason, and aflow of soul," 
was crowded into an hour, constituting a 
beautiful spot in the pathway of all, and on 
which all will look back with emotions of 
pleasure. — ,'l«/((«(;fu^/, O., Teleyniph. 

e a trlumpb still. 

Of those who have labored with marked 
success in raising writing from what you 
liave shown us to have been its rude begin- 
nings, to the "thing of beauty" which greet 
us from the written page, few occupy so 
Luviable a position as the author of the 
SpLMiceriau System, and while writing in the 
wtue-washed aauds of Erie, in your youth, 
xtud^iug the endless forms and combinations 
M beauty displayed in wave and leaf and 
flower and running stream, culling from 
nature's rich pages forms of grace and case 
destined in after years to mould anew the I -^. T. Am(» : 

writing of a nation, you were laying the Deab Sik— Your Compondium of Orna- 
foundation for that monument toyourgenius. i muntal Penmanship received. It is the most 
carved out by the labors of your riper years - beautif id and valuable book for penmen I 
a monument as unduriug us the love for the ever saw, and I have a number of others to 

B and the beautiful implanted by an all- judge from. Yours truly. 

' I. P. Blackman, Penman. 

iignally crowned with success, for yon 
have not only wrought (yi entire and happy 
revolution in the ^vriting of the country, but 
have raised your favorite art to the full 
dignityand importance of a science. 

Several of our number have ah-eady gone 
forth upon their important mission as teach- 
ers of the Art Spenrcriiiii, for which you 
have 60 well prepared them, and others soon 
to foUow, but we are assured that we speak 
the sentiments of every heart, when we say 
that we shall ever look back upon the hours 
passed under your instniction as among, 
not only the most profitable, but most pleas- 
ant of our lives ; and whatever the varied con- 
ditions in life assigned us by the fickle god- 
dess Fortune, you will over be gratefully and 
affectionately remembered. And. asasUght 
token of our high esteem for your chari 
of our appreciation of the unwearied efforts 
you have made to promote our advancement, 
and of gratitude for the great boon you have 
confei-red upon us in common with all who 
write our noble language, in giving to th 
world your uuequallcd system, we in behalf of 
the class, beg you to accept this volume, 
embracing the inimitable works of Milton, 
assured that with your well known poetical 
talents few can so highly appreciate the 
beauties of the greatest of modern poets, as 
our honored preceptor. 

The volume presented was of the largest 
print, of firm, beautifully gilt binding, and 

S, JU. Coreon, CaiToUton, HI.: "As an in- 
sttbcibr to the prbfessiou of penmanship it 
has no equal." 

A. D. Dewhurat, New Hartford, N. Y.: "I 
more than get my doUai-'s worth out of every 
number. " 

filled with new and valuable information, 

E. M. E. Pease, Blue Earth. Mum.: "It 
helps me greatly. I would not do without it 
for twice its cost." 
J. C. McDougall, Waresboro', Ga.: "lean 
ifely say that it is the best paper of its class 
ver published iu the United States. " 
O. P. DeLand, Fon du Lac, Wis. : "The 
is the best of any- 

Zerah 0. Whipple, principle of Homo 
Schools for Deaf Mutes, Mystic River. Conn.: 
"I am debghted with it. JEvery teacher and 
all others who are interested in good penman- 
ship should come forward to its suppurt." 

C. R. Runnells, Chicago, III.: "The Pen- 
man's Art Journal is such a publication as the 
art which it advocates demands. It is nble 
and beautiful, and should be in the hands of 
every teacher as well as admirer of the art." 

J- 0. Miller. Peuman at the Keystone Busi- 
ness College, Lancaster. Pa,: "Of all pubh- 
cations on the subject of penmanship. I find 

Russell. Joliet Business College; "I 
<nu mure than pleased with its fine appearance 
and it certainly seems tbat since wo have at 
last got the right men at the helm, we shall 
have %vhat bos long been needed, a good pen- 
man's journal.'' 

D. J. B. Sawyer, Principal of Dominion 
Business Institute, Ottawa, Canada: "Your 
paper is doing a great work by keeping up a 
spirit of emulation among penmen. It is 
whole-souled and absolutuly unselfi<ih. Suc- 
ceeding generations will bless and cherish th© 
name of Ames 

T W Swank United States Treasury De- 
paitmeut Washmgton D C: "Your Jour- 
VAiisa jewrl It is tbp best dressed, the 
most ably edited and contains more real 
hard pan information in its columns than 
any paper of its cl »ss that has ever been pub- 
Iished in tins to ntry 

b s lackaid New York: "You have 
shnftuthc deposition as well as the ability 
aud taste to f,i\P us a clash paper for one doL 
111 a iffUi which in point of artistic oppear- 
anc© and geneial adaptation to its work, is 
not excelled by anj pubhcatiou in the coun- 

J C Bryant Pi^.sidtnt of theBuffiilo Busi- 
ness College The IorRN.\L is so beau- 
tifuUy gotten up and so well filled with 
t. iihibl and spicy mitter that I feel it ahjiost 
I tj to double my s ibscription. I need not 
I a hope that it will be a permanent 
for there can be no failure if you 
L I p the present st mdard. " 

( A Gtiskell Ihe variety of excellent 
J/u Kimtles of youi pen work you are giving, 
as well as its choice re iding matter, makes it, 
in my opinion supenor to any of its prede- 
cpssors. No penman, old or young, veterans 
beginners, in the profession, can read the 
ithont deriving great benefit." 
Cooper, Kingsville. 0.: "I can 
imagine nothing more elegant or better. It 
abounds in choice articles that revive oM 
fricTida ; and is rich in 
wholesome instruction ; while its embellish- 
ments are superb bits of art, not only redo- 
lent of progress, but warmed by the ever 
brain and cunning hand of genius 


Penman's Akt Joph: 

thing in ita line yet pubhshed." 

J. C. Brown, Fleteher, Ohio: "It is just 
what penmen want. I would not do without 
it for three times its price." 

P. J. McGee, Principal. Toledo (O.) 
ness College: " It is now acknowledged by 
all penmen to be the best penman's paper 
ever published. It is the penman's best 

J. French, Effiingham, III.: "I must 
say I am dehghed with the Jodbnal. No 
teacher of writing can afford to be witliout 

H. C. Kendall, Boston, Mass.: "The mat- 
ter, the style and general appearance through- 

and trained skill. 

Hon. Ira Mayhew, Detroit, Mich.: " Ihave 
been more and more interested in the succes- 
sive issues of your JouR^TAL from the first 
number. It seems to me to be filling an im- 
portant mission. I trust it wiU hereafter not 
only aid penmanship as an Art, but tliat up. 
;?;«(/ penmanship, as a coinmemial branch, 
shall, by its influence, mat.rially ]>romote the 
interests of business education, wbose great 
importance is not yet fully appreciiited." 

Henry C. Spencer, Speucerian Business 
College, Washington, D. C: "The JontNAi, is 
the medium of fresh news, usefxd informa- 
tion, best ideas of genial, clear-headed teach- 
and penmen in regard to their profession, 

and a repository of beautiful 
illustrations of pen art from your i 

Without thought of'^flat- 

Ay, I think you have the 

d spirit of good will 

folio, and otheri 

tery, I say sine 

talent, breadth, tact' 

requisite for the mauagcm'eut of The Jodb" 

Sanuy Hoob, Ct., Oct. m, 1878, 

tainlyof a higher order of excelle«v,u 
than any of its predccessoi-s." 
C. L. Ricketts, teacher of writing, Malta, 
.: ' Penmen, if you wish to meet with suc- 
ss, subscribe for the Journal." 

A. J. Taylor, Priucipalof Business College, 
Rochester, N. Y.: "It is not only of gi-eat 
assistance to those leoruing to write, but real- 
ly a necessity with teachers and adepts." 

H. W. Fhckiuger, Soule's Business CollGge 
Philadelphia, Pa.: -Your paper is far in adl 
vauee of any periodical which has yet been 
published on the subject of penmanship." 

M. E. Bennett, teacher of penmanship 
Schenectady, N. Y.: " We have seen no pub- 
hcatiou liertaining to pen art that has suited 
us 80 well as the Journal. It is admirable." 
A. J. M. Hosom, of the Ohio Valley Busi- 
ness College, Parkci-sburg. W. Va.: "We 
much delighted with the JooUnal 
aud read every 

B shut down 

line of i 
A. C. Blackman, Gn 

From the Press. 

Student's Joui-nal : '• There is probably no 
man on the continent better qualified than 
Prof. Ames to conduct such a periodical. 
The products of his skillful pen arc many and 
beautiful, and show that he is truly an M. 
P.— not Member of Parliament, but Maslfir 

. Trtry (N. Y.) Daily Prem : " No profes- 
Bional penman or aspirant for pen honors can 
afford to miss a single copy. The articlesaro 
from the pens of some of the best penmen in 
America. As for the engravings, it is enough 
to say that Prof. Ames has charge of that de- 

CItirQtn-aphiv Medley, Toledo, Iowa: "Toe 
Penman"^ Abt Joitinal is tilled with very in- 
terestind reading for all ftricuda of the art it 

N. Y. SchoolJaiirnal : "It ia ably edited 
and skillfully illustrated. Mr. Ames is a nios- 
his profession, and will undoubtedly 

*''" * the chief of its class, and 

aud pupils of 

Bay, (Wis.) Bui 

make the Jodbn 
a valuable aid to all 
writing. " 

Canatlian School Jouriutl 

•It i 

i Creator in the human breast. 

--— e-. X uu,»c leiirueu more mmi , F'at^ucai jouiwal, devoted almost exclusively 

rne lew numbers of the Jodunal received ' to penmanship. It ie profusely illustrated, ond 
tUan from aU the penman'H papers ever pub- i handles this much neglected subjeot in o mas- 
lished." *^ j terly manner." "*"'» 



Advertlsemente for 


new fiubscnber, or ronowfti, un 

11 fvirther 

will send . copy of the Lord 

s Prayer, 

ibscrlbera, incloBing fJ, we \vill m 
Ai, one yeftr, oud forward by retu 

iBhlp ever pubUehed, viz. ; 

jDg publi- 

nulal Picture of Progress . . .20x28 

in. in size 

f Sheets orEnKrosBiiiRMchllxl* 

WllUamfl b Pnclcard'e 


Piatt R. Spencer. 

Upon Ihe first page of the Jouknal will 
be found an excellent portrait of Piatt R. 
Spencer, author of Spencerian Penmanship, 
accompanied with a delineation of his 
character, abilities and labors, by his 
co-laborer and friend, Wm. P. Cooper, 
and admirably has the writer treated 
a most worthy subject. No other penman, 
in the annals of time, has in all respects 
left a record more to he envied, or more 
worthy of emulation tlian Platl R. Spencer, 
and what is scarcely lcs6 remarkable, his 
own genius and skill have been to a remark- 
able degree transmitted to a large family of 
sons and diniirhtei-s, all of whom have won 
for lli'iM-ri\r- iiniahle reputations as 
wrii'T- i( nil 1- ml authors, and have 
ably ^^u|'|lll i!Kui> >1 I ill; skillful labor of their 
father in pcrfccUug the system and up- 
building a fame that is now almost world- 
Robert C. Spencer, the oldest of his sons, 
is a popular and successful manager of a 
business college at Milwaukee. "Wis. ; Henry 
C. is conducting, with like success, a business 
college at Washington. D. C; Piatt R. is 
at the head of the Spencerian business 
college, Cleveland, Ohio; Harvey A., a twin 
brother of Henry, conducts a commercial 
school and mnmitfcs a general laud agency 
at Dallas. Tfxas, He is running on the 
Greenback ticket for State Comptroller. 
Lyman P., the youngest of the brothers, 
devotes his entire time to the preparation of 
Spencerian publications. He resides in 
Washington, D. C 

Mrs. Sarah Spencer Sloan, the oldest 
daughter of Piatt R. Spencer, is the wife of 
Mr. Junius R. Sloan, an artist of wide repu- 
tation. She 19 probably the most accom- 
plished lady writer in the world, and ii 

portion of her time gives to Chicago semi- 
naries of learning the benefit of her talents 
as a teacher. 

Mrs. Ellen Spencer Mussey, the only 

other surviving daughter, is the wife of 

R. D. Mussey, a talented lawyer of 

Washington, D. C. She was a teacher of 

peumanship and commercial branches prior 

her marriage and is said to be an able 

sistaut to her husband in his office work. 

Since Mr. Cooper in dealing directly with 

the character and labors of Mr. Spencer, has 

cry properly omitted all information re- 

;arding his parentage and eariy history, 

perhaps a brief sketch here would be 

jiteeptable to our readers. 

He was born at Fishkill, Dutchess Co.. 
N. Y. . in the year 1800. While quite young 
he manifested a marked taste and skill for 
writing— it is claimed by his biographers 
that when a mere boy practicing writing 
after the rude copies in a common school, 
he conceived the plan of a more perfect 
system, and that great precocity and skill 
was shown in his criticisms of copies. 
About the year 1807 his father moved from 
Fishkill to Windham, N. Y., where, some 
two years after, he died, and the mother 
and children emigrated to the then wilder- 
ness of Northern Ohio. Here as a pioneer, 
beyond llie verge cf civilization, away from 
scliools, without social advantagt 
niothcrbcingpoor. hewas, while amere boy, . 
ihriiwn iibnost entirely upon his own re- 
- n:. I - T!r null youth to manhood.his wns 

' ; _ii with poverty. But his 

I ,1 1].!:. ,ii..ii and zeal in the study 

aii'l [jj i(.ii(-L ul writing enabled him, at the 
age of fifteen years, to acquire sufficient 
skill to commence instructing classes, which 
he did very successfully in many of the then 
small villages of northern Ohio. He con- 
tinued thus, to teach with rapidly-growing 
fame for many years, until he built at his 
home in Geneva, Ohio, his "log cabin 
seminary." which, although a rude and un- 
inviting structure, was furnished with all 
conveniences for school purposes. Hither 
came pupils from far and near, drawn by 
the widely spreading fame of its master, 
and they went forth, all true disciples of 
Spencerian; and many most skillEut nnd 
successful teachers; until at length the old 
logseminary, or " Jericho," as it was called, 
became one of the most widely and justly 
famed institutions in the land, and is the 
cherished "AlmaMalcr" of scores of our 
most noted teachers and authors of writing. 
In the later years of his life he devoted 
much of his time to the preparation of his 
system for publication and to teaching 
writing in the Bryant and Stratlon chain of 
business colleges, He died at his home 
Geneva, Ohio, in 1864. His system, 
vised and in many respects improved by his 
sons, is most famous, and more extensively 
taught and practiced than auy, perhaps all 
other, American systems. 

strength and accomplishments. They saw at 
once in this Journal a strong, powerful 
friend and aid to themselves and to the pro- 
fession, and hastened to welcoinc mii! < n 
courage it with their subscriptiiiii;^ ;iihI mu 
tributiuns to its columns, liirlmi, i^ \v 
look upon our roll of subscribtr'- as ili< y 
have been added from month to month from 
its first issue, the names are, with few honor- 
able exceptions, graded 'from first to last, 
according to the recognized standing and 
ability of the persons as skillful teachers or 
earnest pupils of writing. Those firet upon 
the roll are the acknowledged leaders and 
the representatives of the highest intelli- 
gence and greatest skill in the profession, 
and are so because they avail themselves 
promptly and liberally of all the best means 
for obtaining new thoughts and practical in- 
formation bearing upon their chosen pro- 
fession. The largest success to them is natural 
and easy, while to others it is correspond- 
ingly limited and difficult 

Now, there is scarcely a professional 
teacher in the United States or Canada, who 
has enterprise or skill sufficient to command 
respect or attention, who is not a subscriber 
to the Journal, and is not successfully ex- 
erting his or her influence to increase its cir- 
culation among pupils and friends who are 
less directly interested in writing. 

What is true regarding the early subscrib- 
ers to the Journal, is, by no means excep- 
tionable. It will hold true regarding any new 
and worthy enterprise or innovation. It is 
very natural that the first friendsand patrons 
should be those who are most ripe from 
study, thought and experience in that direc- 

Should a periodical devoted exclusively 
and ably to science, art, medicine, music, 
law, agriculture, mechanics, or any trade or 
profession, be started, the first to hail its 
advent, welcome and sustain it, would be the 
most able, conspicuous and aspiring repre- 
sentatives of that calling. 

To those who haye so promptly and ably 
come to the support of the Journal, we re- 
turn our thanks, and assure them that we 
shall spa re no labor or expense to render the 
Journal to the highest degree interesting 
and valuable to all friends and patrons of 
skillful pciiniiinslii|3. 

The New Bryant & Stratton Countmg- 
Hoose Bo ok -Keeping. 

The Worthy Friends of the Journal. 

Throughout the country are a large num- 
ber—some thousands— of persons engaged 
professionally teaching and practicing pen- 
manship, many of them wit^ a marked de- 
gree of success, as regards both finance and 
fame, while many others have never even 
seen the sunny side of fortune. "luck being 
perpetually against them," 

We have observed, that almost without ex- 
ception, the former are among the early sub- 
scribers, and many have been able corres- 
pondents to the JoLTtNAL, and all have mani- 
fested a lively interest in its welfare, from its 
first advent. While few of the latter class are 
among its subscribers or have manifested any 
interest in its success, beyond occasionally 
sending a postal card for ii spf-nimf-n fopv or 
boring its editor with rliail\ ■ lfi~)i li ttr i- 
covering from one to IVim i>:i-i- ni i,,m1- 
cap, and perhaps promisin'j in M[h-( riiii> inr 
the Journal when they could get a dollar, 
for which we suppose they are still striving. 
Success in any calling is measured by the 
means one can command to secure it. The 
teacher who is well qualified, clear, ready, 
and bright, will find that fortune delights to 
attend him, while one poorly qualified, dull 
and rusty, she will slyly watch from the dis- 

Discerning. aapiringand i\ 
(now this, and accordingly, 
•ity. upon any worthy mean 

ji'king teachers 
leize with alac- 
to add to theit 

This book is intended to supplant the old 
counting-house book-keeping which for the 
past fifteen years has been familiar to our 
best commercial teachers. It cau liardiy be 
said to be a revision of that hook, for it is, 
in almost all respects, wholly new. It starts 
out with a clear and full enunciation of 
economic principles, which are laid ao broad 
that they make a generous foundation for 
all necessary theories of hook-keeping. The 
author has evidently expended a great deal 
of time and investigation in laying this 
foundation; and although he lias found it 
necessary to establish a nomenclature diflfei- 
ing somewhat from the text books on politi- 
cal economy, he has nevertheless made his 
premises very clear, and drawn his conclu- 
sions therefrom in a logical and satisfactory 
manner. Beginning with the measure of 
value, he proceeds by regular steps to the 
great moving force of business, (tcquisithn. 
He gives five (iistinct powers in acquisition, 
namely: labm', rent, exchange, gift, and ctr- 
cumntfince. The first three may be used, 
and are used actively: the other two are in- 
cidental, but not the less effective. Upon 
these divisions he founds the whole theory 
of business out of which grows the ucces- 
-Mv.'f n-rnrd .ni.)r.nfr.ivr-slM^i.l.',iswith» 

iNlllir-. ..I frM i.ii.l illn.!l:iliM,, ^,h\rh IcaVCS 
hi h,rl, ll.nv i- li;ililr Ii, rMM a ijur.s(inn as 

lowlu'lhcr l.iomnchelaboralion is not given 
to that part of the work which is styled 
" the statement of the subject," It must be 
conceded, however, that Mr. Packard, who 
has for so many years held tlie position 
teacher and author, and whose book-keeping 
theories, ori-:iii:iI ;uul ^wi-fpillli ns th.-y 

tions, in their order and effect, has brought 
us to the conclusion that he has made no 
mistake in speaking his mind freely. It Is 
true that he has devoted au unusual space 
I M t lie philosophy of book-keeping, but every 
pai:c and section are so fraught with jiracti- 
( al suggestions which can but be helpfifl to 
the student as he proceeds in his work, that 
he is more likely to be commended than 
severely criticised for this departure. The 
teacher who brings himself honestly to the 
task of adopting this book to individual in- 
struction, will soon see that what appears 
to be simply a philosophical dessertation 
upon the economical aspects of book-keep- 
ing, is really a fund of knowledge from 
which practical hints can he drawn as needed 
to apply strictly upon any part of the 
student's work. In his preface, the author 
very properly suggests where the student's 
work should begin, in case it is not best for 
him to follow the consecutive method as laid 
down. Upon this matter he says: "Whether 
the first sixty pages wherein are so fully dis- 
cussed the main qustion relating to business 
and record are to be made a close subject of 
study by any student at the outset is a 
matter for the teacher to decide in the case 
of each student. If he finds no trouble in 
following the course of reasoning, and he- 
comes fully interested in the gradual un- 
folding of the subject, a great vantage point 
willhe^ained by encouraging him to pursue 
this method; but if. on the other hand, he 
does not readily catch the thought, and is 
apt to get bewildered in trying to follow the 
sequences as laid down, he should not be 
held too rigidly to the work, but turn at 
once to the practical exercises, depending 
upon the direct instruction to which refer- 
ences are constantly made. To a certain 
class of minds, a plain synthetical unfolding 
of a subject in logical order carries a force 
and conviction to be obtained in no other 
way; while to others reasoning must come 
in detatchments, with constant resting places 
and ample means of attestation. To the 
former a clear statement of a principle is the 
open doorto all the truths which it embodies; 
to the latter the wisdom of formulating ideas 
in words which are to serve as a key to the 
knowledge which they seek is never appar- 
ent until the knowledge has been obtained 
through other means." 

The book, as it stands, is the last and best 
work of the author, and embodies his freshest 
thoughts upon his favorite theme. It is 
adapted to private instruction as well as to 
class drill and to business college work, and 
will no doubt be accepted as the best contri- 
bution to our list of commercial text books 
yet made. It has fewer pages than the work 
which it supersedes, and will be sold at a 
lower price, but the author claims that it has 
in it more real instruction and much more 
work for the student. "Great care has been 
taken to present all the best modern ideas 
and forms, some of which are far in advance 
of anything yet published. From our point 
■, one of the most instructive and 
beautiful sets is that of the wholesale dry 
goods business representing a Chicago house. 
It would hardly be possible to put within 
thirty pages more genuine information. We 
have looked this set carefully through, and 
do not remember ever to have seen anything 
so full and satisfactory. Upon the whole, 
we feel that Mr. Packard has honestly met 
the high expectation which his promise has 
excited, and that the new counting house 
book-keeping, will have a career of useful- 
ness not excelled by any recent text hook. 

Canadian School Journal, Oct., 1878. 
Ames' Compendium of Practical and Orna- 
mental Penmanship. By Prof. D. T. 
Ames. New York. 

This work is a complete compendium of 
fien art, containing over twenty entire alpha- 
bets of different kinds, numerous designs for 
engrossed leeolutionB, testimonials, certifi- 
cates, title-pages, monogiams, and a great 
variety of truly artistic pen-flourished designs 
of every dcBoription. The work is the most 
elegant and elaborate pvibhshed on the sub- 
ject, and Hhould be in the hands of every pen- 
man and engrosser, as ideas, designs, styles 
of borders, lettering, flourishing. Ac., maybe 
foimd therein to suit almost any taste. It has 
to be seen to be properly appreciated. The 
photo-engraving and printing of the n 
pen pictures are a marvel of excellence. 


Unity and Simplicity of Forms of Let- 
ters Necessary to Good and Rapid 

Business Writing. 
Much practici^ iu luimiii(, to write is lost 
by nmking use of a miiltiplic-ity of compli- 
cated forms of letters; not only is the acqui- 
sition of a good haudwTitlng tlniB made more 
difficult, but the subseiiuent practice is ren- 
dered proportionately slow and tedious. 

The simple forms are not only more easily 
acquirud, and more rapidly executed, but 
they are more easily read than tbe more or- 
nate styles ; iu fact those forms that cost the 
most, are worth the least. It is as if a mer- 
chaut should coustantly purchase an inferior 
class of merohaudise, and pay the high price 
of the best; his chances for success certainly 
would not be very promising. 

Labor, whether of the clerk or mechanic, 
is rewarded according to the results it can 
produce. The copytet or clerk who can write 
one hundred words, equally as well, in the 
same time that another writes fifty, will cer- 
tainly, other things being equal, command 
twif(i (IS much pay. 

IIji rapidity with which writing can be 
r\i rut rd, depends largely upoii tlie simplic- 
it\ nt the forms of letters used, and the size 
of the writing. A medium or small hand is 
written with much more ease and rapidity 
than a large hand ; from the fact that the 
]>in "fiu be carried over short spaces iu loss 
iiim , ;inil with greater ease than over long 
1.(11- iiud Cftu execute simple forms mwe 
vji-iiv and rapidly than complicated ones. 
To illustrate. Suppose one writer were to 
habitually make the capital it thus; 

which requiies eleven motions of the hand 
to exocute, aud that another «eio to umfoi-m 
ly make it thus 

How to Prepare India Ink. 

In answer to numerous inquiries upon tliis 
subject, wc would say : Procure a stick of 
ink, of 6ne quality, and a sloping tray of 
porcelain or slate, at the end of the slope 
should be a well to contain and give depth 
to the ink: put into the iray rain water suffi- 
cient to make the desired quantity of ink, 
and then grind the stick of ink into the 
water upon the sloping bottom of the tray 
vintil it becomes of the desired degree of 
l,|:,,kiH" xvlirriil i-.VH.lvfnruM.. llsheuld 

it crocks and is easily removed by the rub 
ber. Many inexperienced persons seek to 
].rtitari? the ink by shaking and dissolving it 
i)i V i'< I :i I iinioi in that manner be sufti- 
I, I In either flow readily oi 

1,. _ . I J Mirk line. A very delicate 

;ii:,l ;■!' . 'ii;_ ' ;' ' I ['imparted to writing and 
drawiuji by lirsl using a light shade of ink 
aud then retouching the shaded portions 
with d:nkcr ink, this will not do, however, 
)',,■ .Mil il. -1 jTM rt furrciiroduction by either 
II,. |! : : .villi,' or lithographic pro- 
,. . I, :ii' clear, strong, black lines, 

,iuii Nil 1 ii iiinsshould be removed with 

Mtl sponge rubber. 

A. J. Bicknell & Co., 37 Warren street. 
New York, have ^ust issued two interesting 
aud valuable works upou nrchitocture, en- 


T. J. Risinger is the accomplished super- 
intendent of writing in public schools at Now 
Castle, Pa. 

Mr. E. Bennett is highly complimented by 
the Schenectndy, New York Dail)/ Union, for 
his success in teaching writing in that city. 

F. B. Davifi, who is reported to boa skillful 
wTiter and teacher in New Eugland, is iust 
ing large classes in the "Old Nutmeg State." 

I. S. Preston, is teaching large classes at 
Saratoea aud vicinity, assisted by one of hi^ 
former pupils, H. W. Bearce. Both are skill 

E. L. Burnett, LaCrosse, Wisconsin Busi- 
iss College sends attractive specimens of 


Two most exquisitely written letters have 
been received during the mouth from Lyman 
P. >5pencer. 

F. B. Davis, Jewitt City, Conn., sends super- 
r specimens of plain, flourished aud fancy 

colored card writing. 

T. J. Pricket, penman at Sonle'B Business 
College, Philadelphia, Pa., sends an excellent 
specimen of business writing. 

J. E. Scwle, Philadelphia, Pa., sends a pho- 
tograph of a beautiful specimen of engi-ossing 
executed at his business college. 

C. N. Hamilton, New Augusts, Ind., writes 
a handsome letter, iu which he enclo(<es skill- 
ful flouriebing and card writing. 

D. R. Lillibridge, Davenport. (Iowa) Busi- 
ness College, sends a fine specimen of letter 
writing and off-hand flourishing. 

A well executed specimen of flourit^hiug and 
a set of off-hand capitals has been received 
from B. F. Cagle, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

Gus Hiilsi/.i-r, Toulon. IU. , sends a haud- 

of the Van Sickle Family in the United St 

Professor P. K. Fritz, an accomplished 
writer, and formerly editor of tho ' ' Nfiio 
EngUind SUtr," Ansonia, Conn., is spending 
ft season in Europe. 

G. W. Michael. Valparaiso, Ind., has been 
a very popular and successful teacher of writ- 
ing. Many of our Western Knights o' the 
Quill are indebted to him for their skill. He 
incloses some superior slips of his.wi-iting. 

H. \\ : :■ . . •■■■■ ■'■■ \- \ ■•> niiMii.-.s C.l. 

graceful spici incus of busiuefis and card 

Some most elegant specimens of business 
writing have been received from S. R. Web- 
ster, Mho is teaching wTiting at Gregory's 
Business College, Newark, N. J. 

Jos. Foellei-, Ashland. Pa., seudsa photogi-a- 
plric copy of the Lord's Prayer in the Irish 
language, which is skillfully designed and 
well executed. 

requiring only four motions of the hand It 
is appiirent that the diffeience of time re 
quired to make each cannot be kss than the 
proportion iif (leven to four that is not all 
The comphtated form consisting of many 
lines, some of which are i tquired to run pai 
allel to each other and all made with lefer 
ence to balancing oi haimonizmg with bome 
other line requin-s to be made with greater 
care and skill than the more simple form so 
that the disadvantage is ev*.n gieatT than m 
dicated by the simple pioportion between 
eleven aud four 

This plan carried out thro jgh the alphabet 
would be fatal to rapid and legible business 

Unity of forms in busmcss writing is also 
very essential to rapidity and evcellente— 
The mechauic ^^ho makes one thing a special 
ty. acquiich gient skill and dispatch m his 
work, in fact he becomes the lepresentative 
man in his vocation — so thewntcr who mokes 
use of the minimum number of the most sim- 
ple forms of lettei-s in writing, will become 
proportionately more skillful and nipid, than 
he who adopts the maximum number of the 
most complicated forms. 

These remarks are intended to apply more 
especially to business and unprofessional 
writing. In ornamental and professional 
writing, where show aud beauty are of great- 
er consideration than dispatch, variety and 
complexity of forme are quite proper, and 
even necessary. 

|^«.l,mt^i^ ^- ¥<i:wiw 

ut the exqnisitu touch and hue ot Mi Fhckmgera 
i . hading tins 1 putui ut f Penman hip m Amen 
iitbless spen f 1 it the Centennial by 

idpiaise atth I 1 luNew \oik 

New Drawing Books. 
Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor k Co.. have re- 
cently published a school series of White's 
drawing books, revised by Professor H. P. 
Smith, teacher of drawing in the New York 
luihlir schools, which are peculiarly adapted 
t'l use in public or private schools. They 
•^Ih iiild be examined by all teachers of draw- 
1 last page. 

Photo -En graving . 

We take pkiisure in again calling the at- 
tention of our readers to Ilio illustrations in 
the present number of the Jo0rnal, as fine 
specimens of engraving. The cuts were all 
made by the New York Photo Engraving 
I'l.mpany. Wc believe thai their process 
!ind facilities for furnishing cuts are un- 
equalled (ilsewUere iu the country, 

titled "Old Homes made New." giving 
twenty-two illustrations of old and new 
structures, exterior and interior. It is of 
great value to architects, as well as to all 
persons contemplating any extensive, altera- 
tion of their homes; another a specimen book 
giving one hundred most approved archi- 
tectural desigas. showing plans, elevation 
and views of suburban houses, villas, sea- 
side and camp-ground cottages, homesteads, 
churches and public buildings, accompanied 
with spatifications for materials. &c. The 
work is finely engraved and printed, aud 
bound in excellent style. They have also 
published a very interesting book entitled 
" Echoes of Song," by Mrs. Lucy II. Wash 
ington. Fine English cloth, iuk and gold, 

J pp. 


Business Colleges and the Journal. 

The success of the Journal should be 
pecially desired and aided by these iust 
lions, since it will treat, as u specialty, upon 
subjects which they make a specialty of 

We believe that instructors in those insti- 
tutions can do their pupils no greater ser- 
vice than to induce them to subscribe for 
and read Ihe Jouhnal Many appn 
this fact, and have forwarded long lists of 
subscribers from among their pupils 
trust many others will do thus wisely. 

W. E. Dennis, at Wright's Business College, 
Brooklyn, New York, has just completed an 
exquisitely fine specimen of pen drawing in 
the form of a cherub surround«^d with a finely 
wrought wreath of flowei-s. It is among the 
finest speoimonswe have examined. 

Col. Geo. Soule, President of Soule Com- 
mercial College and Literary Institute, Now 
Orleans. La., recently favored us with a call, 
on his return from a visit to Europe and the 
Paris Exposition. He is a genial aud accom- 
plished gentleman. His institution has long 
tuaintained au enviable reputation among the 
busmess colleges of the South. Its liberalty, 
enterprise, and correct appreciation of what 
is advantageous to its pupils aii'l patrons is 
evidenced iu the fact thiit. it lias, (hiriug the 
year past, furnished mor<i subf.cribt^r.s to lUo 
JoDKNAL than any other single iustituliuu iu 

I which he 
specimen of his best 

W. D. Speck, Roxbury, Pa., sen^ credit- 
able specimens of card writing. 

J. M. Van Potter, Aylmer. Out., wnds a 
skiUfiUly executed specimen of flourishing. 

F. H. Waters, Gan-ettsvilie, Ohio, incloses 
a tastefully executed specimen of flourishing. 

C. W. Pabuer, Sullivan, Pa., sends some 
beautiful specimens of plain and flom-ished 

work for the December number of the Jouit 

R. T. Rawson, Worcester, Mass., sends two 
specimens about 4x6 inches skillfully flour- 
ished with red, green, white, and gold inks, 
these colore are blended with much taste and 

Thomas .7. Bryant, Principal of the St. 
Joseph, Mo., Business College, seuds a very 
fiue specimen of flourishing, also a lithogra- 
phic copy of an elegant specimen of writing 
as taught Iu his college. 

H W FUckinger with J. E. Soulo, in the 
B. &S, BiisiuesB College. Philodt-lphia Pa., 
seuds two gems of flourishing, a reproduction 
from ouo ol which will be found on another 
page. It will speak for itself. 

Messrs. McCreary ifc Shields, forwarded a 
Bpeciuien of i^ugi-ossing 'iL'xSS, executed in 
n t^npr-i-io." nrnuirr l>y H W. Kibbe. con- 

M.i^i. I, II. ;ii-.l 'h.lmi.l, I'upils of M. 
J.. i;iii:,,u, tLi-iiui- uf Jiauiug and writing 
ut Seh'-U''i-'tady, N. Y., the former sends a very 
creditably executed landscape ; the latter a 
somewhat elaborate specimen of drawing. Con- 
sidering the age aud period of instruction of 
the lads, they are cre^table to pupils and in- 

(!eiiiR of flourishing and exquisite card writ- 
ing, accompanied with a most gracefully writ- 
ti'U letter comes from Thomas J. Stewart, 
penman at the Capitid City Business College. 
'JVentou, N. J. Mr. Stewart is a pupil of H. 
W. Flickinger, whose skill he pays a well de- 
served compliment when he says: '• I try to 


fwhf p mciaahM 

bf. n oonhkll 

n d pn d u 

b p h P P 

u. (1 li d d oh p 

Answers to 


fp \iUftd<i n find gm e of 

H C D I o dam Ob o Yo w ng 

y good Wlift yo mo d s a fi 

prnctice upon the fore arm and combined 

movement, which is by all means the best foi- 

])mctical writing. 

A. L. C. Boston, Ph.— We cannot well give 
U^sRODs iu engrossing through the .TnmiNAL. 
Your writing is tolerably correct iu form. 
You do not give snflScient attention to the 
proper curves in your eouuccting Hues. You 
Hppear to usr the finger movement largely, and 
fiiil in fft'ie and gnut:- of movement, 

C. P. R.. Spiingville. N. Y. — Drawingscau 
be repioduci'd by either photo-engi-aving or 
poto lithtiiajihy without reduction, but the 
lines nre I'nlar^ed, which gives to the print a 
eoni-se, blftck. I'hirred appearance, which is 
not the ca-ip whi^n ri^dueed from a drawing 
twice the siz^ of th- .I.-miv.! unt or print. 

O. B. G., N ! '" I - \ I 'nr writing has 
much mevil ; ii ■ [■■ ■ ■■'.■■\' I:: will have a bad 

hitbit in nr>l - l^itrta of your 

letters, or thi i i-i |.uiniiii. u., n, p, s. and 
h, the same slope as the titht^r p;ii-tR of the 
letter. You shoidd study our article ' ' Hints on 
teaching writing" in the last number of the 


In an article in the I'rnman'it Hrlp, just 
recL-ived. we notice that Mr. C. R. Kalhhurn 
complaiuK that he has not re'rt-iv.'d the Sep- 
tember number of tbi- \ i; i .InrffXAL, and 

■ I ■ • ..u:|,Uy 

'-a1a::^'[\ V Lh Mr. K., 
itb)>. •iul.s^-riptioTi, which 
ly number, has not been 
rv\\ for Mr. R. is a Uve, 
, and ou^lit to read the 


A very tiistcfully got up catjilogue for 1«78 
has bein received from Brtylie's Dubmiue, 
Jf.\vii. Business rolUt<e. 

U. .1. MftRi-L-, luitiiipal of the Toledo. Ohio, 
BusiiirKK Cullcj^r is highly complimented for 
his skill and success us a writer and teacher, 
by tlR- I iil.-do Suuday Journal. 

'\'W ( 'iillfge Jitin'Tiftl. issued by Me.Creary 
vV- of the Utiea Business College. ' 

odel of cx' 
lul, ftViU-. and pr 


icftl 1 

•11, propri 

rtors of the New 

li ^:.-at N- 


Mil ..I J- 

■. liauk note cur- 

!,. voung idea" 

:, ■ - |. 



Cal.) BusineM 

■ 1 , 1878, is re- 

■■ 'r 

• .1 with iuterest- 

1 it this institu- 

.,.. 1 

. uiidition. 


1 the Speucuriaii 

it is the lower turn ; if 
an upward bend, thus, 
the upper turn. Have 



The Writing Class. 


Teacher. I see something written on all 
these child-faces, and that is interest iu the 
lesson. I would advise first a short review 
of the previmis lesson, condensing it, and 
giving the pith iu a few idmple sentences — 
thus: We cau Bpeak words, or we can write 
them. AVhen we speak words, we tell what 
we think by the use of certain sounds , when 
we write words, we tell what we think by the 
use of letters. The letters which we %vrite 
are signs of the spoken sounds. We speak 
with the voice, we write with the hand. 

N"te. If this review is repeated iu concert 
after the teacher, it will help the pupils to 
store up with method what they learn, and to 

Let us tliink Hnd talk about letters, before 
we begin to write them. We have three 
kind.s of letters in common use. First, we 
have the printed Itoman letters, which yon 
see in your reading books ; -these letters stand 
up straijiht. Second, we have the i)rinted 
Italic letters, which are much like theKomau, 
but ieun over to the right. Third, we have the 
written letters, which also lean over to the 
right, and are much like the Itaticti. AU of 
thesf letters ure uiuih- up of lines. 

the short bend at base 
of middle line of if" 
"Yes; a turn." "Is it 
an upper, or a lower 
turn?" "A lower turn." 
"How many parts have 
you found in if" 
" Four." "Name thorn 
in order, as I point to 
them." "The right 
curve ; the straight line ; 
the lower turn ; the 
righteurve," "Canyon 
see any other part to the 
letter V " Some answer, 
"The dot." "Now 
how many partA are 
there in /'.'" "Five." 
"The dot is the smallest 
mark that can be made." 
(To be eontiniud.) 

from the famiUar 
i, and from these to 
isily illustrated, and 
nlogiL's, which will 

il. O. .-.. 
BuHiucbhCoUege, Wiishhigttiu, 1). C, forwards 
a large poster engraved in fac-simile by A. Mc- 
Lees. from Mr. Spencer's writing, which is 
mA»terly and elegant. 

We nro happy to h-^nn il, t lu :-|. . ,l Nor- 

mal Penmanship \'>>-\' 1 1 ,mi n A last 

month as being vsLiil'li i 1 - < uli m 

connection with th.. l■.l^ mm ,\ si,.,i:.,>, lt„si- 
uess College. Philadelpina, I'a . is op-uiug as 
it denervvs. very auspiciously. Uatalugue and 
circular received from this institution, is a 
model of good toKle and business like adver- 

Rt newai of Sabscriptions. 
Subscribers who desire to continue to re- 
ceive the iloiiitNAi. should nut fail to renew 
tbeir Kubacriptious, as the Journal will in all 
cases bo discontinued at the eud of the period 
for vbioh the subscription is paid. 

Itomau and Italic forms iu the written letters. 
"How many can read Italic letters? All 
can. Then you can soon leai'n to read written 
letters. I write on the blackboard, script 
small i. " What-letter is this \ " A few can 
I erase all of the first line, and nearly 
all of the htst, and make the top just like the 
base of the letter, only revei-sed. "What 
does it look like now?" AU say, "/." As it 
Btauda now, it is Italic small i. I will make 
the written letter beside it, so that you can 
look at both. Let us now elicit from the pu- 
pils, by means of apt questions, that there is 
a short bend, or turn, at the base of each let- 
ter , that the Italic has a short bend or turn 
at the top, while the written one is sharp and 
pointed at the top ; that the Italic begins and 
ends with very short lines, while the written 
letter begins and ends with long Unes ; that 
the middle line of either is straight, except 
where the turn is added at top or base ; and 
and both are dotted above the top. This 
will teach the children to resolve the written 
letter iuto parts, and to compare it with, and 
buihl it up from, the Italic. After the written 
form is fully pictured in the mind of the 
child, we proceed to analysis. 

Is'ott. The question may arise here, can 
the primary classes in writing be taught 
analysis? The elementary analysis of the 
script alphabet is so simple that it can be 
easily understood by the youngest pupils. 
The entire scri])t alphabet is derived from the 
straight line, and the oval. The parts of the 
ovnl used separately in writing are the sides, 
top, and base. These, together with the 
straight line, make up the five elements froiu 
which is formed every soripl letter. The fol- 
lowing diagram illustrates the analysis of the 

base of the oval. 

El. I. is the straight line; El. II..theLower 
TniT), is the base of the oval; El. III., thu 
Right Curve, is the right side of the oval ; El. 
IV., the Left Curve, is the left side of the 
oval. El. v., the Upper Turn, is the top of 
the oval The pupils will easily learn to 
know the straight line, and the right and left 
curves. The other two oval elements are 
more difficult. But if we expect children to 
fcriU these tui-us in the letters, it is logical to 
teach them to gee the turns in the same. 
There is as much individuality to these lesser, 
as to the greater parts of the letters. These 
young scholars are just passing over the 
threshold of the art, but should not have a 
single step to unlearn. 

"How many Unes 
smaU/'.'" "Three." 
separately. ' ' What ( 
these hues? "' Some say, 
ed;" others. "They lean 
a crooked line?" The am 

! there in written 

will write the lines 

you tell nie about 

They are craok- 

rer." "What is 

era come, "One 

that is bent;" "One that isn't straight." 
" Is this penholder (holding it upright) 
straight?" "Yes." Suppose that I let it 
lean a little to the right. " Now, is the pen- 
holder straight or crooked?' "8traiilht." 
I place it piuallcl t() the middle line of i. and 
show the pupils that this last is a straight 
hne as far as the short turn at base. " Are 
the first and last lines of /'like the penholder?" 
"No." " Why not?" "Because they're 
crooked." They are what you call crooked ; 
that is, they bend a httle, so that the ends of 
the lines run away from the penholder, when 
I placed it beside them on the right. "Do 
these lines bend evenly ! " "Yes.'' "^ line 
that bends evenly is a curve; what do you 
call these lines?" "A curve;" "curves." 
" When a line bends to the right, thus, it is a 
right curve ; when it bends to the left, thus, 
it is !i left curve. Are the curves in ( right or 
left curves?" " Kight curves." "You have 
told mQ that the lines of ( lean over. When 
a line leans to one side, it is slanted. The 
straight line and cuiwes of i are all slanted. 
Do tht-y slant alike? that is, do they all lean 
over e(pially ? " "No." "Which slants the 
least?" -Tho middle one." "The curves 
in i slant more than the middle or straight 
line, as you can see that the penholder leans 
over farther when I place it opposite these 
hues. Written letterii, and Italics ore made 
up mostly of slanted lines. The upper part 
of a line, or of a letter, is tho top; the lower 
part is the biise. I wish you all to look care- 
fully at the middle Une of i, and see whether 
it is the same at top and base. Is tho line 
straight all the way down, like tho penholder, 
or docs it bend a little, either at the top or 
at tho base?" "It bendsa little." "Where?" 
"At ihe base." "How many ran see this 
short bend ? " All cah. " A short bend in a 


Mr. Ajoth: 

Dear Siu — We received a few days ago 
from you five papers, also the beautiful pen 
design and sheet entitled "The Lord's Piay- 
er, " by Prof. Ames. Not to say that your 
Uberality is beyond praise is to say very little. 
To say that your skill is less as an artist than 
your liberality as a man, would be to be 
grossly unjust ; however, I must say, that 
while heartily plea.sed with your liberality. I 
am, after all, more than deUghted with your 
art as by you rendered. I thank you for all 
at once. W. P. Coopeb. 

In the above gniceful compliment Mr. 
Cooper does us too great honor, especially so 
much as relates to our liberality. He is in- 
debted to another forthe receipt of the papers 

Back Numbers 
' JuDiiNAL CPU be supplied, begmniog 
N... 0, nf Vol. 1. No prior number 

Splendid Penmanship! 


r Rei 

lines iu the oval, and the combination of the letter is a turn; if a downward bend, thus 

Pior. KiniiE. 
'VTOIITIZ :5s loo: 



Mpriin Kqtml m Mie Flin""t Eii^ravii 


illcCREARV & .SH1EM> 

■»*' lllMIle, posl-piiid, lOc. M 

Stimpson's U. S. lY 

What Everybody Wants. 

o Lord's Prayer, 


^^/t) ^ 



Every Variety of Pe Wo k P , y r..e.„.e _c Most Pee.. M.n.,^,. 

Also. Counsel given as Expert on Hand-Wiilmg and Acconnts 

i«„mtii!i'"^.^]'.?.'- appropriate aud attractive cut* designed and cngrftved eBpecmliy for displaylup 
IniidtjlllB, Clrciilara or Catologuea iiaued I>y Tcacllfw of Writing, ScLool^, Cnllegea, &c. By iiBing theBe 
, Haudbil.B will be more aitroetlve, liciice nion- likely to be read aod proaerved B ^ ^ 

'" 'V ■<'<:"':»'»1'« Plate, will bo sent by tnail to any oddre««, nt low price.. Inclo.e alamp 
circular with terme. ' 


he \'ery bent focllites for executing, in a prompt, economical and superior moDuer, order- 
.°ora°*"oSiS '"'"% """e"" <" Krawmg. for tie .ame. For iilpl„,„„ „„ji sin-ei 
■e Riving orders elsewbpre. 





Accounts, with Arithmetical Pioblcms, 

•)V>':«TIO^S IN COillMElttlAI, i„»iv. 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher. 

litlrjitOM III I 



'■ ESQ I. 



o jpe'ivi^v g . 

:Ei:E3XjiX32r' r^-r y* 

Cards in a most diwAy s, 
10c. SoudcoiQ. MtmphiB, > 




,;, i^'.''i',mprf*r*''au 



mplosof my "ule- 







' ' I'z.BCiit fori Htani; 

liow style of c"rdT 
". H. VAN RIPlr! 


> ■ ■I'.'KLES, A. M 


Ill or Bookkeeping, 
X BiiBiue^B Colleges, 
dreua tlie Aiitbor, 
U.. Pria, BioB. uol. 



i>d lIuiiriBljed c&tAis yuu 
inoBt superb Lnud-made 



^Hiite B[W '^■.V'^'' *''*^P"; *» gO""! 1-ply slock. More 

(jT Vlllly H,i 

I diBpluya ot off-haiut i 

AlillMCIAr ]^IC,HT. 

.___v°.ndtop„,b^brouVLburi:iVdm.aer.7,;V(,VVi;bt:"""'""" '" I™"™"""' ""' "■ doftlv 

Our platts are now used by the principal publishers and manufacturers in every 
Slate in the Union 


vv'^\K,VJi\«\\VV\\V^\\A\\\\f -.xS, "J^W W 0\K^<J,V 

n Series OF 



•ely not only 





^opci^/tsT/Tfi P^f^s /A/ use '■ , ; I 


-nt f"r Jfi,-. hUiiiii* tukei.. WELLs'wTsWlPr! 
irloiirtUe, Ouondago Co., N.Y. 6-lflt 

Cro»dw»y, New Tort 

■U. iURtt, Oberlfn. 






With extra heavy Covers, the paper heiiifj made especially fur these hooks. 
•.• The Spencmian Copi-Books should be retailed at prloea not Uigliev thivti those herewith appended ; when they cannot be thus ob- 
tnined, the publishere wiU send them by mail, postage paid, on receipt of the same. 



/. snojrrEi; rncnsE A-ND tracing books. 

li. COMMdX sclIiiiiL SMNUiS. 

III. EXEj;(isi: si:i,'ij-:s. 

jr. DVSIXJSXfi iiJaUES. 

r. THE SHORTER CO URSE is an entirely JVE W SERIES, and consists of SEVEN small looks, JVos. 1, 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6J, and 7. BY MAIL, 9 CENTS EACH. 

]Vo. 1 coutaius 13 short letters, first introduced separately, then combined in simple words. 

s all the small letters, first introduced separately, then combined m simple words, five on each page and a column of 

I<Jo. 3 contains the figures, aU the small and capital lottera, introduced in the order of their classification. 

ISo" 4 in anangement and ruling, foUows the plau ot N o. 3»f the Common School Series as described below. 

ISo! 5 contams 12 pages of capitals and words beginning with capitals, alternate columns, and twelve pages ot capitals and short 

IVo. O, in an'angement, follows the plau of No. IJ of the Common School Series as described below. 

IVo. O*, same as No. 7, with the addition of double rules. 

3Vo T contains sentences embracing all the capitals and smaU letters. 

The above Series is so ai-raugcd that, where it is desirable to have a course comprising a less number of books, the alternate numbers 


, and 7, making a 

J of four books, and Nos. 

of Educalion. 

THE TRACING BOOKS, Nob. 1, 2, 3 and i. are also a new feature in the system. They are duplicates of Nos. 1, 
2, 3. and 4 SHORTER OOUR.SE. and iutfuded to accompany them, or to be used as a distinct coiu-se, followed 
by thehighernumbersof til. Slim; I Ll; COURSE. By mail, 9 cents each. 
The coDies to be traced with pen .1.1 ,„ii,ted in a color, and so arranged that the pupil is reiiuired both to trace and 

wiit« upon each page, eicept No. 1, > ;,,,.., ..„d designed to teach position, pen-holding and movement only. Upon the 

covers of these books are found compicto mhiT-icni.iiN mliiptedto each. 

//. THE COMMON SCHOOL SERIES. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 4i and 5. This Series has undergone a 
thorough revision in every purileular. MT MAIL, 12 CENTS EACH. 

No 1 contains the first three principles, and their application, in the formation of thirteen short letters, and these letters combined 

in easy words. The size of the writing is large, in order to more clearly exhibit the forms. 
INo 3 contains iOl the small letters, figures and capitals. The letters are first introduced separately, and then combined in words. 

The writing is large, but not so largo OS in No. 1. Each page contains five columns ot words, two of figures, and one ot cap- 
No 3 reviews the small letters and capitals, introduced separately first, and then in words, six upon a page. The hist three page 

are devoted to short sentences. This is the nio»t practical aud useful book fr)r those who can devote but a short time to the 

study of penmanship, as it is complete in itself. 
No. 4 is a word-book so arranged as to present four words upon a page, beginning with capitals, and i 

five in all. 
No. 41 This is a new number, and contains words and short sentence) alphabetically arranged. The sentences are placed 

column of capitaU, 


r of the copy, and the words at each end. 

ius long sentences embracing all the capitals and small letterB, with columns of two figures at each end. 

INTERMEDIATE BOOK. This book contains all the small and capital letters, together with twelve short sen- 
tences. By mail, 12 cents. 
Analysis, illustrations and complete instruotionB appear oyer the copies ot the fibst three boohs, and general instructions ore 
found upon the cover ot each book. The miuNo regulates absolutely the hight, slant and spacing of oil the loiters in No. 1, the loop 
letters in No. 2, and the relative bights of all letters in No. 3. 

III. EXERCISE SERIES. A and B is an entirely new set of boohs. By mail, 12 cents each. 

These books are intended to accompany Nos. 1 and 2 of the OoMMOs SoHOon Sebies, The first half of each copy is composed of 
movement exercises, the second half of iiiotter for practice. 

EXERCISE SERIES. Nos. 10, 11 and 12. By mail, 9 cents each. 

Nos 1(1 and 11 contain a great variety of ingenious exorcises designed for the important work of disciplining the arm, hand and 
fingLT.?. No. Iti contains a great variety of Off-hand Capitals, German and Old English Text, together with several Alphabets. 

IV. BUSINESS SERIES. Nos. 6 and 7. By mail, 12 cents each. 

V. LADIES' SERIES. Nos. 8 and 9. The copies in this series are presented in a smaller hand. By mail, 12 

cents each. 
THEORY OF SPENCERIAN PENMANSHIP. For schools and private learners. Developed by questions and 

answers, n-ith practical illustrations. Designed to be studied by pupils in connection with the use of Spenoe- 

BiAN Copt Books. Boards, by mail. 3.5 cents ; paper, 22 cents. 
SPENCERIAN KEY A Standard text-book on Penmanship, for the use ot teachers, pupils aud professional pen- 
men. Cloth, Illustrated, 17(1 pages. By mail, $1.30. 
SPENCERIAN CHARTS OF WHITING. 47 Charts ; sold seporately or bound together. Size. 19x24 inches. 

By express, iH.iH. 

They are so printed as to present the appearance of Siipf.l-ioi* ]Blaolcl)oax*(l Wl-itixig^. 

EACH CAVll'AL LETl'EK APPEAKS BY ITSELF, with analysis and printed description. The letters are of very large size, the 
capitals and looi) letters being a foot in hight. aud the small letters in proportion, so that they may be distinctly seen across the largest 
school-room. They are mounted upon a roller in such a uianner that one page is exhibited at a time. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

13S &; 140 GRAND ST., NEW YORK. 


The Model Copy-Books. 

TtiUaerfoB of Oopy-BonbB, dlaliDRUiebcd from all 
retrogresBlou by the pupil at any atnge of his ptacltre. 

The eerlea compriaea 

he following booka: 

e cnnstniction of small lette 

No. 2. CBpIUI letter 
grouped an 

a claaaifled for practice. 

No. 3. Sboit aenteiic 

a «nd review of amall letter 

No. 4. Senwuceaand 

proper name a. 

No. 6. Long sentence 

a IntroduciDg varione atj lea 

No.GX- Sameaa No. 

.. except in a emaller Land fc 

No.O. Biiaiuesa forn 

18, ledger-headinga. etc, f 


Specimen . "W o r k. 

perfect themaelvea in the art. 
Siicclmen Cupica u( tbe Six Numbers for* 
warded Doatpnld to Teachers or Committees, 
on reccipi of Fitly Uenia. 

I). APPLETON, & Co. Publislicrs. 

New York. Boston, and Chicago. 



Do You Wish to Learn 

Shape, Combine and arrange 1 
tencea and Paragraphs ; how to C 
Inatriicl s Writing Cluaa in the 


■'Ellsworth's Essential Penriumship.' 

I new and complete Riude for teaeliers and advanceJ 

. \V, KI,I..S\VOUTH, PubUat 



.Common S 



Not a Revision, but an Entitei* 

NEW 8 E R I ii f^ 

MalllK'WB iJrOB.' ttiid Uryaufa Printing and Publlab-